unification of Germany, the East German sports apparatus fell apart. This was not surprising; state subsidies suddenly ceased, and the thousands of coaches, managers, and instructors had no more financial support. The best athletes and coaches were absorbed by the West German sports clubs, but the average sportsmen had to fend for themselves as best as they could.
Dennis Mike, German Democratic Republic: Politics, Economics, and Society ( London, 1988); Steele Jonathan, Inside East Germany: The State That Came in from the Cold ( New York, 1977).
Stoph, Willy ( 1914-). Stoph, who had been born into a worker's family, became a bricklayer. In 1931, he joined the German Communist party. He was drafted and served in the German army until the end of World War II. Between 1947 and 1948, he headed the Department of Basic Industries of the German Central Administration for Industry. In 1948, Stoph was appointed a secretary to the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity party in the Soviet zone of occupation. He was administering the section supervising the economy. In 1951, he was appointed to direct the Bureau of Economic Development, an institution subordinated to the prime minister of East Germany. He then became minister of the interior and deputy chairman of the council of ministers. He was appointed minister of defense with the rank of colonel-general of the army, and in 1959 he received promotion of the rank of army general. He was then appointed deputy chairman of the council of ministers responsible for the coordination of the policies of the Socialist Unity party with the activities of the state bureaucracy. In 1962, he became first deputy chairman of the council of ministers, replacing Otto Grotewohl (see Grotewohl, Otto) who was, by then, seriously ill. In 1964, he was named chairman of the council of ministers and deputy chairman of the council of state. Between 1973 and 1976, he became chairman of the council of state and, in 1976, resumed his position as chairman of the council of ministers. With the collapse of the communist regime, his political activities came to an end.
Dennis Mike, German Democratic Republic: Politics, Economics, and Society ( London, 1988).
Ulbricht, Walter ( 1893-1973). Ulbricht, the son of a tailor in Leipzig, was entered by his father into apprenticeship in carpentry. In 1910, he joined the youth organization of the German Social Democratic party, and, two years later, he was admitted to the party as an adult member. He served in the Kaiser's army in World War I, and he joined the Spartacusbund, a militant, socialist, paramilitary association. In 1919, when the Social Democratic party split between the radicals and moderates, Ulbricht joined the former and became a charter member of the German Communist party. In June 1921, Ulbricht was elected into the leadership group of the new party. Two years later, he joined the Central Committee of the party in Berlin. In 1924, he was