specifically planned for a quick solution to the peasant problem through a thoroughgoing land reform. Since they were as yet unsure about Stalin's plans for postwar Hungarian political life--it seems that Stalin himself did not know what he wanted to do in Hungary--the Hungarian communists did not make plans for the immediate seizure of power. However, they were ready to assume considerably more power in Hungary than the existing strength of their party would entitle them to do.
Fejto François, A History of the People's Democracies ( Paris, 1971); Kovrig Bennett Communism in Hungary: from Kun to Kadar (Stanford, CA, 1979); Molnar Miklos, A Short History of the Hungarian Communist Party ( Boulder, CO, 1978).
Aczel, Gyorgy (1917-1992). Gyorgy Aczel was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Budapest. He studied at the Pazmany Peter--later Lorant Eotvos--University in Budapest and joined the Hungarian underground Communist party in the 1930s. During the rule of Matyas Rakosi (see Rakosi, Matyas) in the late 1940s and early 1950s, he was a minor functionary. After the Revolution of 1956, he became close to Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) and was appointed secretary of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers party. In 1960, he was "elected" a parliamentary deputy.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Aczel was the cultural tsar of Hungary. He was responsible for the "regularization" of cultural life, and the restoration of communist control over all cultural affairs after the revolution. A skillful manipulator of people, he was responsible for the establishment of the "three categories of creative products," namely, those that were permitted, those that were tolerated, and those that were forbidden, When Kadar was deposed in 1988, Aczel himself was replaced. He retired into private life and died in 1992.
Konrad Gyorgy, and Szelenyi Ivan The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power ( New York, 1979); Lendvai Paul, Hungary: The Art ofSurvival ( London, 1988).
Aczel, Tamas (1921-). Aczel was born to middle-class Jewish parents, and many of the members of his family were exterminated by the Nazis. In 1945, he joined the Hungarian Communist party, and as a journalist, he became active in the Hungarian Writers' Union. Aczel was one of the young writers who honestly believed in the efforts of the communist leadership to establish progressive socialism in Hungary, and he enthusiastically supported these efforts. However, by 1955, he, together with others, had realized the dishonesty of the communist leadership and was gradually alienated from the party.
Aczel was one of the founders of the Petofi Circle in Budapest, whose meetings took on the character of an opposition to communist totalitarianism. In the summer of 1956, Tamas Aczel was on the list prepared by Matyas Rakosi (see Rakosi, Matyas) containing the names of intellectuals who would be arrested for antiparty agitation.