pace of transition from communism to a democratic society. At the same time, however, he also declared that Hungary needed more "living space" (presumably at the expense of its neighbors), and that Hungary was being dominated by Jews who obeyed instructions from New York and Tel Aviv.
In 1993, Csurka was expelled from the Hungarian Democratic Forum and from the party's parliamentary caucus. He established a new movement called Magyar Ut (Hungarian Way), and appealed to right-wing sentiments in the country. His isolation from the mainstream of politics, however, was accomplished. His newspaper, Magyar Forum (Hungarian Forum), continues to publish his views. In July 1993, he admitted that he had signed a promise to be an informer for the communist secret police during the 1960s. Surprisingly, the admission did not diminish Csurka's popularity right-wing circles.
Oltay Edith, "Hungary: Csurka Launches 'Nafional Movement,'" Radio Free Europe Research Report 2.13 ( March 26, 1993), pp 25-31.
Cultural Policies in Communist Hungary. Immediately after the conquest of power by the Hungarian Communist party, Jozsef Revai (see Revai, Jozsef), aspiring to the position of the "Hungarian Zhdanov," declared the commencement of a cultural revolution. This concept had nothing in common with the later developments in communist China. In the Hungarian case, it meant that "appropriate" cultural activities and creative work would be heavily subsidized by the state. It also meant wide publicity for works supporting the Marxist-Leninist view of social and political processes. Naturally, subsidies meant state--that is, Communist party--.control, and the state demanded works in the spirit of "socialist realism." The concept of socialist realism was difficult to define. In the interpretation of the communist leaders, it meant that "cultural workers," that is, writers, actors, painters, and others, would produce creative works that were geared to supporting the "building of socialism." They were to portray happy people in work, proletarians, peasants and intellectuals, with some soldiers thrown in, and they would show them in their struggle against the "enemies of socialism." Since History was believed to be working for socialism as well, creative people would have to show permanent optimism even under the most difficult of circumstances. They would have to create the images of "socialist men"--and women--utterly and totally dedicated to bringing about the victory of socialism against the wicked enemies of the people. Socialist realism also meant abject humility in the face of the great geniuses of mankind, above all, V.I. Lenin, but also of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, with Joseph Stalin thrown in for good measure, at least until the famous speech of Nikita S. Khrushchev detailing Stalin's crimes.
The Hungarian version of socialist realism was different from other East European versions in the sense that it was more rigorous in enforcing communist standards and more ruthless in pursuing deviations. In fact, the Soviet example of the concept was placed above all Hungarian cultural endeavors, and the heroic struggle of the Soviet