tern of the Red Army, including Russian uniforms and training manuals. Before assuming his ministerial post, Farkas participated in the "preparation" of Laszlo Rajk (see Rajk, Laszlo) for his show trial by personally supervising Rajk's torture.
In 1954, knowing that Rakosi's days were numbered, Farkas sided with Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre) and became a member of Nagy's first cabinet. When Rakosi returned to power, Farkas was removed from the Politburo of the Communist party, and he was made a scapegoat for the atrocities committed by Rakosi's regime. Ironically, he was tried on trumped-up charges and imprisoned. He died in obscurity in 1965. His son, Vladimir, a former colonel of the secret police, has since undertaken the task of whitewashing his father's crimes.
Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961); Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979); Farkas Vladimir, No Excuses ( Budapest, 1990) (in Hungarian).
Foreign Relations of Communist Hungary. Hungarian foreign relations may be divided into three distinct phases. The first of these, extending from 1945 to 1948, was characterized by the government's efforts to rebuild relations with the Western countries while, at the same time, maintaining a working relationship with the Soviet Union. Hungary was required to pay reparations to the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia. The Hungarian economy was, however, so depleted by the war, and the Red Army's occupation of Hungary was so oppressive, that no reparations were paid to Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia. Relations with these two countries did not get off to a good start. The Czechoslovaks wanted to expel all Hungarian minorities. When this was vetoed by the Allies, president Eduard Benes resorted to large-scale deportations of Hungarians to western Czechoslovakia. The Hungarian government was powerless to prevent this action. The period was ended by the peace treaties of Paris, concluded in 1947, which declared Hungary's pre-World War II borders as final, depriving about three million Hungarians of the opportunity to live within an ethnically Hungarian state.
The second phase of Hungarian foreign affairs began with the conquest of power by the communists. After the Stalinization of Hungarian society was completed, Hungarian foreign affairs simply mirrored Soviet policies. Hungary's role in the United Nations was simply to support whatever the Soviet representatives proposed and oppose what they disliked. The situation changed briefly in 1956. In 1955, Hungary had joined the Warsaw Pact alliance, integrating the Hungarian armed forces under Soviet leadership. When the Revolution of 1956 (see Revolution of 1956) broke out and, in a few days, it defeated the secret police and the Soviet garrison in Hungary, the new Hungarian government attempted to create an independent, neutral foreign policy. It did not succeed because the Red Army suppressed the Revolution in November 1956.
The third phase of Hungary's foreign relations began at that time. For more than