three decades afterward, the counterrevolutionary government of Janos Kadar simply followed the lead of the Soviet Union in most foreign policy decisions. For example, Hungary supported the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, boycotted the Los Angeles Olympic Games, and fought vigorously against the installation of American missiles in Western Europe. This period ended with the last communist government Hungary and the exit of the Hungarian state from the Warsaw Pact alliance.
Fejto François, A History of the People's Democracies ( London, 1971); Gati Charles, Hungary and the Soviet Bloc ( Durham, NC, 1986); Kertesz Stephen D., Diplomacy in a Whirlpool: Hungary Between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia ( Notre Dame, IN, 1953); Kiraly Bela K. , The First War Between Socialist States. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and its Impact ( New York, 1984).
Gero, Erno (1898-1980). Gero was the highest ranking Hungarian member of the COMINTERN. He spent the interwar years in the Soviet Union and was an early recruit of the Cheka (later the NKVD and the KGB). He was a commissar in the Spanish civil war and was reported to have been responsible for the persecution of Anarchists and Trotskyists fighting alongside the communists.
He spoke several languages, including Russian and German. He was a typical apparatchik who obeyed the orders of higher party organs unquestioningly. Rigidly dogmatic, he was one of the few communist leaders in Hungary who spurned a luxurious life-style. He was an aloof man who inspired fear even among his closest collaborators. He had no friends, only coworkers.
In 1944, Gero expected to be named the first secretary of the Hungarian Communist party. However, when Joseph Stalin's choice was Matyas Rakosi (see Rakosi, Matyas), he accepted this without a murmur and served Rakosi loyally. In 1948, he was entrusted with the supervision of the Stalinization of Hungary's economy. He acted with great zeal even when it became obvious that forced industrialization was harming the country's economy. In June 1956, Rakosi was removed from power and sent to exile in the Soviet Union by Nikita Khrushchev. Gero was the Soviet leadership's choice to replace the fallen dictator.
At the outbreak of the revolution in October (see Hungarian Revolution of 1956), Gero hastily returned to Hungary from a fence-mending visit with Yugoslavia's Josip Broz Tito. He declared martial law and asked for Soviet military assistance to subdue the revolutionary students, workers, and intellectuals. Five days later, he was removed from the leadership of the Hungarian Communist party and was replaced by Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos). Gero then fled to the Soviet Union. In 1961, he was permitted to return to Hungary and worked as a translator, until his death in 1980.
Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961); Fejto François, Behind the Rape of Hungary ( New York, 1957); Molnar Miklos, A Short History of the Hungarian Communist Party