garian Communist Party ( Boulder, CO, 1978); Vali Ferenc, Rift and Revolt in Hungary ( Cambridge, MA, 1961).
Glatz, Ferenc (1941-). Glatz was born into a worker's family who lived in one of the workers' suburbs in Budapest. He was educated at Lorant Eotvos University in Budapest, and after graduation, he became a member of the Historical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He joined the Hungarian Socialist Workers party and was, for a short time, secretary of the party cell at the Historical Institute. He was gradually entrusted with administrative tasks under the direction of Zsigmond Pal Pach, the director of the Institute, and later by Gyorgy Ranki, who succeeded Pach. Upon the death of Ranki in 1988, Glatz was appointed to succeed him. In 1989, he became a member of the cabinet of Miklos Nemeth as minister of education and culture.
In a short time, Glatz became one of the most popular cabinet members. He reorganized the ministry and started a process of reforms. He abolished the compulsory teaching of the Russian language in Hungarian schools, colleges, and universities. He established an organization, called the Europe Institute, that became the center of graduate-level instructions for students from the countries of Eastern Europe. Next, he abolished the compulsory teaching of Marxism-Leninism in the schools. He began the process of creating a new curriculum for the schools, and he ordered the democratization of the administration of the universities.
After the elections of 1990, Glatz returned to the Historical Institute, where he continues his work as director. The journal that he established in 1986, called Historia, has become the source of unorthodox articles. His journal was the first to reexamine many of the policies and events of the communist era in Hungary, breaking new ground in informing the public of controversial historical events. He was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1992, and he became deputy president of the organization. A prolific writer, Glatz has become a leading historian of Hungary. He has traveled extensively in Europe, the United States, and the Soviet Union, lecturing at various international conferences and universities.
Glatz Ferenc, Historical Writing at the Time of Changing Ages (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1990); --, National Culture-Cultured Nation (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1988). Kulesar Kalman , and Szolenyi Ivan, The Road of the Intelligentsia to Class Power (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1989).
Goncz, Arpad (1922-). Goncz received his education in agricultural science and also obtained a degree in law. He was one of the relatively few intellectuals who participated in the armed resistance to the Germans in Hungary. Between 1945 and 1957, he was a member of the Independent Smallholders party. After the demise of his party, Goncz worked as an agricultural expert. In 1956, he was a participant of the Revolution (see Revolution of 1956) and, as a consequence, was tried and sentenced