to life in prison in the same trial that resulted in the jail term for Istvan Bibo (see Bibo, Istvan).
Goncz was freed by the general amnesty in 1963 and found work at first as a translator, then as a writer. He participated in the democratic opposition during the 1970s and 1980s. Goncz was among the founding members of the Committee for Historical Justice and the Alliance of Free Democrats. In 1989, he was elected president of the Hungarian Writers' Union. A year later, the Hungarian parliament elected Goncz president of the republic.
Hegedus Andras, Life in the Shadow of an Ideology (In Hungarian) ( Munich, 1985); Ministry of Education, The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Reform, Uprising, Fight for Freedom, and Vengeance (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1991).
Hanak, Peter (1921-). Hanak was born to a middle class Jewish family. He keenly felt the persecution of the late 1930s and early 1940s; most of his family perished in the German death camps in 1944. After World War II, Hanak joined the Hungarian Communist party and became an ardent believer in the ideals of Marxism-Leninism. In the early 1950s, he became a member of the Historical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, where he soon rose to the post of department chairman.
The Revolution of 1956 (see Revolution of 1956) changed Hanak's outlook on politics. He was a supporter of Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre), and, when the Revolution was suppressed by Soviet tanks, Hanak refused to join the reconstituted Hungarian Socialist Workers party, as the Communist party was renamed. Instead, he concentrated his energies on raising the next generation of historians. In 1980, he was invited to become a professor of history at Eotvos Lorant University in Budapest while remaining a member of the Historical Institute. He was long bypassed for membership in the Academy of Sciences for less prolific and lesser known historians because of his withdrawal from politics.
Finally, in 1986, Hanak was elected to that institution. He traveled widely in the West, taught as a guest professor at various universities in the United States and Europe, and contributed to various historical projects in Hungary and abroad. He interested himself mainly in the last period of the history of the Habsburg empire and its successor states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He has been a prolific writer whose contributions to history will be long lasting. In the 1990s, Hanak became the director of the Central European University, established through support by private funds, whose headquarters in Prague and Budapest are aimed at providing graduate-level education for East European as well as Russian students. In 1992, Peter Hanak retired from the Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Hanak Peter, Hungary in the Monarchy: Studies (in Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1975); --, The Garden and the Shop (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1988); Kulcsar Kalman, and Szelenyi Ivan, The Road of the Intelligentsia to Class Power (In Hungarian) ( Budapest, 1989).