Hegedus, Andras (1925-). Hegedus was the son of a poor sharecropper and a wealthier peasant woman. He received a good education and he became acquainted with leftist ideas. He joined the Communist party in 1945 and participated in the distribution of land to poor peasants. He was a minor official in the party's youth organzation. He rose gradually in the ranks and, by 1953, when Joseph Stalin died, Hegedus was a member of the highest organ of the party, the Politburo. He was a protege of Erno Gero (see Gero, Erno).
In June 1953, Hegedus was a member of the Hungarian government delegation that visited the Soviet Union, and here he listened to the chastisement meted out to the delegation by Lavrenty Beria, Georgy Malenkov, and Nikita Khnishchev.
In April 1955, Hegedus became the prime minister of Hungary. When the Revolution of 1956 (see Revolution of 1956) broke out, Hegedus signed the request for the Soviet authorities to activate the Red Army garrison in Hungary to suppress the Revolution. When the revolution was temporarily victorious, Hegedus fled to Moscow. After the revolution was suppressed, he returned to Hungary, but he was a disillusioned, broken man. Appointed by Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) director of the new Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences, he began to gather around himself scholars who were not afraid of exploring the ills of Hungary's socialist system. When Hegedus condemned the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact in August 1968, he was removed from the Institute and expelled from the Communist party. He is now living in retirement.
Hegedus Andras, Life in the Shadow of an Ideal (in Hungarian): Interview with Zoltan Zsille ( Venna, Austria, 1985); Konrad Gyorgy, and Szelenyi Ivan, The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power ( New York, 1979); Kovago Jozsef, You Are All Alone ( New York, 1959).
Hungarian Democratic Forum. The Magyar Demokrata Forum (MDF) was established in the small village of Monor in 1986 by 160 intellectuals, many of whom were populist writers. The organizers were encouraged by Imre Pozsgay (see Pozsgay, Imre), a member of the reformist wing of the leadership of the Hungarian Socialist Workers party, the name the communists adopted in 1956. The group was an amorphous gathering whose members declared that they were not an oppositional movement. They wanted to reform the Kadar regime and move it toward internal legitimacy. The movement crystallized at another meeting held in the house of Sandor Lezsak in the small village of Lakitelek near Budapest in 1988. The movement changed into a political party in 1989. The party never became the representative of any specific social group. It was a genuine national liberation movement whose leading aim was the of Hungary in parallel with the removal of Soviet occupational forces from the country.
In 1989, together with other oppositional groups, the leaders of the MDF began a series of discussions with the reformist wing of the communist leadership, and this led to the free elections of 1990. In the elections, the MDF received 43 percent of the