eth Century) Tarsadalomtudomanyi Tarsasag (Association for Social Science), and others. In 1918, he joined a circle of progressive intellectuals, which gathered around Count Mihaly Karolyi. Karolyi led the first revolution after World War I. However, Lukacs changed sides; he joined the Hungarian Communist party.
During the first Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919, Lukacs was commissar for culture. After the destruction of the first communist regime, Lukacs asked for and received asylum in Austria, then moved to Weimar Germany. Finally, he went to the Soviet Union, where he was severely criticized by Soviet ideologues for his efforts to seek a democratic way to socialism, but in each case he practiced self-criticism and survived Stalin's times.
In 1944, he returned to Hungary with Matyas Rakosi (see Rakosi, Matyas) and other Muscovites, and he became a leading source of ideological purity in the Hungarian Communist party. In 1949, his speculations were condemned by Jozsef Revai (see Revai, Jozsef) and Laszlo Rudas, his competitors for the position of the "Hungarian Zhdanov." In 1956, Lukacs was appointed minister of education in the revolutionary government of Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre), and he was deported to Romania with the members of Nagy's government after the suppression of the Revolution. However, for some unknown reason, he was not charged in the trial of Imre Nagy and his supporters. In 1967, he was rehabilitated and readmitted to the Communist party. His disciples formed the Lukacs School of Marxist Thought.
Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979); Molnar Miklos , A Short History of the Hungarian Communist Party ( Boulder, CO, 1978).
Magyar Kozosseg (Hungarian Community). This organization originally established as a resistance group against the Nazi domination of Hungary. Its membership came from various colleges and Peter Pazzmany University in Budapest. In January 1947, however, the organization was unmasked by minister of the interior, Laszlo Rajks's (see Rajk, Lszlo) secret police. Seven leaders were captured and tried, including Gyorgy Donath; Domonkos Szentivanyi, who signed the armistice with the Soviet Union in October 1944; Istvan Szentmiklosi, a former officer of the general staff, a member of the anti-Nazi resistance; Balint Arany; Dr. Janos Heder; General Lajos Dalnoki-Veres; and Dr. Kalman Salata, a parliamentary deputy. Three members were condemned to death by the communist court, which charged that they led a conspiracy for the overthrow of the government. Only Donath was executed; the others were sent to prison for decades. This was the first show trial in which the techniques of torture were used in Hungary. Ironically, the minister of the interior, Laszlo Rajk, who personally supervised the "preparations" for the trial, was himself to fall a victim in 1949.
Nagy Ferenc, The Struggle Behind the Iron Curtain ( New York, 1948).