( New York, 1959); Molnar Miklos, Budapest in 1956. A History of the Hungarian Revolution ( London, 1971).
Marosan, Gyorgy (1908-). Marosan, of workingman origin, was trained as a baker and was active in the labor union movement in Hungary before World War II. He also joined the Social Democratic party. He was a man of limited intelligence who compensated for this lack by the use of extremely vulgar language. Marosan was appointed secretary of the Social Democratic party and, between 1945 and 1947, he was first secretary of his party's organization. He was one of the major promoters of the merger of the Social Democratic party with the Communist party. After the merger, he became first secretary of the Budapest organization of the Hungarian Workers party, as the new association was called. In 1950, however, Marosan was arrested on trumped-up charges. He was tortured and kept in prison until 1956. In 1956, he was freed and rehabilitated. He was also appointed deputy prime minister and a member of the leadership of the Communist party.
After the revolution (see Revolution of 1956), Marosan was the most vicious supporter of vengeance on the population. He was appointed a member of the Politburo and the Central Committee, and he also became first secretary of the Budapest organization of the Communist party. In 1962, however, he became a liability for Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) who wanted to effect some sort of accommodation with the population. Therefore, Marosan was expelled from the Politburo. In 1965, Marosan withdrew from the party, but in 1972, he asked for reinstatement. He remained, to this day, a dogmatic, radical, vulgar Marxist.
Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961); Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979); Nagy Ferenc, The Struggle Behind the Iron Curtain ( New York, 1948).
Mindszenty, Jozef Cardinal (original name: Pehm) (1899-1975). In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Mindszenty was bishop of Veszprem. He was an outspoken critic of Nazism, and he spoke out courageously against the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the death camps in 1944. He was persecuted by the Hungarian Nazis.
In 1945, Mindszenty was appointed bishop of Esztergom, an office that usually carried the title of cardinal. From his pulpit, Mindszenty continued his crusade against barbarity, this time of the Stalinist variety. He declared that Marxism-Leninism was incompatible with Christian beliefs. He was especially vehement in opposing the state's takeover of the schools of the churches. Mindszenty was undoubtedly courageous and a man of deep convictions, but he was also belligerent and it appeared that he was seeking martyrdom.
In 1949, the cardinal was arrested by the secret police. He was accused of illegal foreign currency manipulations, because his church received donations from Western religious institutions, and he used the funds to strengthen his church. He was tortured