and put through a show trial on trumped-up charges. He was broken (some said that he was also drugged) at his trial, and he confessed to the charges. He was sentenced to life in prison.
During the revolution (see Revolution of 1956), Cardinal Mindszenty was freed by the revolutionaries. He immediately appealed to the nation over the national radio for an end to the bloodshed. When Soviet troops crushed the revolution, Mindszenty was given asylum in the embassy building of the United States in Budapest. He lived in the embassy building for nearly twenty years, walking in the garden, and celebrating mass for the embassy personnel in his quarters. In 1984, the Kadar government finally concluded an agreement with the Vatican that included a provision for the release of the cardinal from the American embassy and his emigration to the West. He left the country. Thereafter Mindszenty visited Hungarian exile groups in Europe and in the United States, encouraging them to remain faithful to Roman Catholicism and to their Hungarian heritage. He died in 1975.
Lendvai Paul, Hungary. The Art of Survival ( London, 1988); Vali Ferenc, Rift and Revolt in Hungary ( Cambridge, MA, 1961).
Munich, Ferenc (1886-1967). Munich, of Jewish descent, served in the Habsburg army in World War I. He was captured in 1916 and, in 1917, joined the Soviet communists. He participated in the Russian revolution, and returned to Hungary in 1919. He was appointed military commander of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in March 1919. After the destruction of the Bela Kun regime by the Romanian army (see Communist party of Hungary), Munich emigrated first to Vienna, then to the Soviet Union. He acquired Soviet citizenship. Munich participated in the Spanish civil war. During World War II, he served in the Red Army.
In 1945, Munich returned to Hungary and was immediately appointed a high official of the Communist party. Between 1946 and 1949, he was the police chief of Budapest and was responsible for the excesses committed against the opposition. Between 1950 and 1956, Munich served as a diplomat in Soviet Bloc countries and in Western Europe. When Soviet tanks crushed the Hungarian revolution in November 1956, Munich sided with Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos), and he was appointed minister of the interior with control over the reorganized secret- and regular police. Between 1958 and 1961, Munich was prime minister of Hungary, and from 1961 to 1966, he served as minister of state in the Kadar regime.
Munich was a dogmatic Marxist who, together with the other Muscovites, was a rigid supporter of Soviet colonialism. He spoke Hungarian, but he was really a loyal Soviet subject who always placed Soviet interests above those of Hungary.
Hegedus Andras, In the Shadow of an Ideology. (In Hungarian) ( Vienna, 1980); Kopacsi Sandor , In the Name of the Working Class ( Toronto, Canada, 1986).