neutrality and the country's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. On November 4, a massive Soviet attack of 2,000 tanks and 150,000 infantrymen stifled the revolution. Nagy and most of his cabinet sought refuge in the Yugoslav embassy. However, they were offered safe conduct to return to their homes and they left the embassy. As soon as Nagy and his friends were on the street, they were surrounded by Soviet KGB troops who forced them into closed vans, and they were all flown to Romanian exile.
In 1958, Nagy and several of his cabinet members were returned to Hungary, tried in secret, and found guilty of crimes against the socialist state. Seven of them were executed, including the rightful president of Hungary. After the executions, they were secretly buried, face down in an unmarked grave, showing that Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) wanted to express his hatred for the martyred premier even after his death. However, lmre Nagy's story did not end there. On the anniversary of his death on June 16, 1990, he was rehabilitated and reburied with great pomp and ceremony with the attendance of about 200,000 people. Two days after Imre Nagy's reburial, his executioner, Janos Kadar, was dead.
Gati Charles, Hungary and the Soviet Bloc ( Durham NC, 1986); Peter Hanak and Held Joseph , "Hungary on a Fixed Course: An Outline of Hungarian History," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Meray Tibor , The Life and Death of Imre Nagy (in Hungarian) Paris, 1972); Rothschild Joseph, Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II ( Oxford, 1992).
Nemeth, Laszlo ( 1901-1975). A true polyhistor, in the best sense of the term, Nemeth fulfilled several roles as a writer, physician, and teacher. He became in the 1930s the leading ideologue of the Hungarian populist movement. His writings and lectures aroused great interest among young people in the country. He established a journal, called Tanu (Witness), which had only a limited circulation and a relatively short life, whose influence among the populists became decisive.
Nemeth had called for Hungarians to reject capitalism and communism, both of which, he judged, were incompatible with the national character. He advocated the establishment of a Garden Hungary, based on scientific agriculture, which would have created, according to him, a better life for the vast majority of the population. Nemeth never understood urban civilization; he opposed the cities as incompatible with the Hungarian national character at a time when urbanization was proceeding with leaps and bounds in Hungary.
In 1943, at a conference of the populists held at the village of Szarszo, Nemeth voiced his concern that, with the end of the war approaching, Hungarians would become involved in a fratricidal struggle from which no victors would emerge. Nemeth was a humanitarian: his works were banned by the communists, and some appeared in print only after his death.