Borbandi Gyula, Der Ungarische Populismus ( Mainz, Germany, 1976); Nemeth Laszlo, The Destiny of the Intelligentsia ( Budapest, 1944) (in Hungarian); -----, Preparations: Before the Witness ( Budapest, 1941) (in Hungarian).
Nyers, Rezso ( 1923- ). Nyers, a printer before World War II, joined the Hungarian Social Democratic party. After the merger of the social democrats and communists, Nyers was appointed a member of the central apparatus of the Hungarian Socialist Workers party. He attended the Karl Marx Economic University in Budapest and received his diploma in 1956. In June 1956, he was appointed minister of food industry, and he remained at that post even during Imre Nagy's brief premiership during the revolution. When Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) became Hungary's dictator, Nyers was appointed secretary for food supplies. Between 1957 and 1960, he was director of the Alliance of Trade Unions. He was then appointed minister of finance and held this office until 1962. For the next twelve years, Nyers was working as a secretary of the Political Committee, the Politburo of the Hungarian Socialist Workers party was called.
During this time, he was one of the architects of the reforms of the New Economic Mechanism (NEM), introduced in 1968. The reforms created a prosperous peasantry and a working agricultural system. In 1972, however, the hard-liners of the party leadership succeeded in slowing down the reforms since, according to them, it provided too much prosperity for the peasantry. Nyers was entrusted with cleansing the economic leadership of the advocates of reform. After he completed this task, he himself was removed from the leadership and was appointed director of the Economics Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He remained in that post until 1981. However, he did not earn the gratitude of the leaders since he continued his advocacy of reforms.
In the mid- 1980s, Nyers joined the group of reformists who were increasingly restive and demanded the complete overhaul of Hungary's political and economic systems. He was used by the leadership in various capacities but was not given support for the reforms. In 1988, Nyers was one of the spokesmen of the reformists who removed Kadar from the head of the party, and he was a member of the group that formed the Socialist party of Hungary in 1989. In the 1990 elections, Nyers was elected a parliamentary deputy, and he is currently the most important member of the Socialist party in parliament.
Swain Nigel, Hungary: The Rise and Fall of Feasible Socialism ( Oxford, 1992).
Patriotic People's Front. This organization emerged in 1944 at the insistence of the communists. It included the major political parties who had resisted the Germans, and it provided the basis for a provisional government and provisional parliament, established in the city of Debrecen in December 1944. After the conquest of power by the