Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

communists, however, the People's Front simply became a front organization. It was a mass group whose tasks included the fostering of "proletarian internationalism," that is, the dedication of Hungarians to the cause of world revolution led by the Soviet Union.

When Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre) came into power in 1954, he was able to use the National People's Front as an instrument in trying to curb the powers of the state and party bureaucracies. He was not successful because the front's leaders were communist bureaucrats who were loyal to Nagy's opponents. Yet the National People's Front eventually served as a forum for outspoken communist reformers during the mid- and late 1980s. By then, the president of the front was Imre Pozsgay (see Pozsgay, Imre) and he skillfully used his organization to prod the leadership toward reform. When the communist system collapsed, however, the Patriotic People's Front disappeared together with the other communist front organizations.


Bibliography

Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979).

Peace Treaty of 1947 with Hungary. A Hungarian state delegation was summoned to Paris in the summer of 1947 to sign a peace treaty with the victorious Allies; however, the "treaty" that was presented to the Hungarians was not a treaty at all. It was the collection of decisions that had been arrived at by the four Allies after they had listened to spokesmen of the Successor States for advice. The Hungarians tried to challenge some of the harsher provisions of the proposal but in vain. The peace treaty returned all territories awarded by Germany and Italy to Hungary in 1938-1941 to their previous states. This meant the restoration of the Trianon borders of Hungary with the loss of about 3 million ethnic Hungarians. Hungary was also required to pay hundreds of millions of dollars worth of future products in reparations to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia; with the dismantled factories and other equipment carried away by the Soviet army, the peace treaty presented a tremendous burden for the postwar Hungarian state.


Bibliography

Kertesz Stephen D., Between Russia and the West. Hungary and The Illusion of Peacemaking 1945-1947 ( Notre Dame, IN, 1993); Romsics Ignac, Wartime American Plans for a New Hungary: Documents from the U.S. Department of State, 1942-1944 ( New York, 1992).

Pocspetri Case in Hungary (1949). When the newly established communist government ordered the confiscation and nationalization of all church schools, there were some open expressions of discontent with the decree. In the village of Pocspetri in southern Hungary, several hundred citizens demonstrated against the decree. The mob surrounded a policeman whose gun was accidentally fired and he shot himself. The policeman in question was a communist. Next day, several hundred police, led by Laszlo Rajk (see Rajk, Laszlo), then minister of the interior, surrounded the village and arrested about a hundred inhabitants. These were brutally tortured, until they "ad-

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Dictionary of East European History since 1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps vii
  • Preface ix
  • INTRODUCTION: EASTERN EUROPE 1
  • Albania 37
  • Bibliography 39
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 46
  • Bibliography 47
  • Bibliography 48
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 50
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  • Bibliography 63
  • Bibliography 63
  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 65
  • Bibliography 67
  • Bibliography 68
  • Bibliography 70
  • Bibliogrphy 71
  • Bibliography 71
  • Bibliography 72
  • Bibliography 75
  • Bibliography 76
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 79
  • Bulgaria 81
  • Bibliography 82
  • Bibliography 89
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 92
  • Bibliography 94
  • Bibliography 98
  • Bibliography 99
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  • Bibliography 110
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  • Bibliography 119
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  • Bibliography 120
  • Bibliography 121
  • Bibliography 122
  • Bibliography 124
  • Bibliography 125
  • Bibliography 125
  • Czechoslovakia 127
  • Bibliography 127
  • Bibliography 133
  • Bibliography 133
  • Bibliography 134
  • Bibliography 135
  • Bibliography 136
  • Bibliography 138
  • Bibliography 141
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  • Bibliography 174
  • Bibliography 174
  • German Democratic Republic (east Germany) 175
  • Bibliography 175
  • Bibliography 180
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  • Bibliograhy 198
  • Bibliography 198
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  • Bibliography 227
  • Bibliography 229
  • Bibliography 229
  • Bibliography 230
  • Hungary 231
  • Bibliography 231
  • Bibliography 241
  • Bibliography 241
  • Bibliography 242
  • Bibliography 242
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  • Bibliography 300
  • Bibliography 300
  • Poland 301
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 310
  • Bibliography 311
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  • Bibliography 312
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  • Bibliography 319
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  • Bibliography 331
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  • Bibliography 337
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  • Bibliography 369
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  • Bibliography 370
  • Bibliography 370
  • Bibliography 371
  • Bibliography 372
  • Bibliography 373
  • Bibliography 374
  • Romania 377
  • Bibliography 377
  • Bibliography 383
  • Bibliography 384
  • Bibliography 385
  • Bibliography 386
  • Bibliography 387
  • Bibliography 388
  • Bibliography 388
  • Bibliography 391
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  • Bibilography 428
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  • Bibliography 430
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  • Bibliography 432
  • Bibliography 434
  • Bibliography 435
  • Bibliography 435
  • Bibliography 436
  • Yugoslavia 437
  • Bibliography 437
  • Bibliography 443
  • Bibliography 444
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  • Bibliography 448
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  • Bibilography 472
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  • Bibliography 495
  • Bibliography 496
  • Biblography 496
  • Bibliography 497
  • Index 499
  • About the Author 511
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