eignty." In the same year, Karoly Peyer and Anna Kethly (see Kethly, Anna), leaders of the Social Democratic party were eliminated, because they opposed the cooperation of their party with the communists.
In 1947, the turn of the other leaders of the Smallholders party arrived. First, Bela Kovacs (see Kovacs, Bela), the first secretary of the party, was arrested by Soviet KGB agents in the Hungarian parliament's building, since he was a deputy elected by the people. Then twenty-two other deputies were forced out of the Smallholders party, including Kalman Salata and others, charged with conspiracy against the state. Finally, Ferenc Nagy (see Nagy, Ferenc), the prime minister, was charged with being involved in an antistate conspiracy. He was, however, out of the country and he resigned after his son was delivered to him in Switzerland.
By 1948, the salami tactics had worked and the oppositional parties were destroyed piecemeal.
Kovago Jozsef, You Are All Alone ( New York, 1969); Nagy Ferenc, The Struggle Behind the Iron Curtain ( New York, 1948).
Social Changes in Communist Hungary. Society has undergone substantial alterations during forty-four years of Communist rule in Hungary. The former middle class, small as it was, completely destroyed. It was replaced by the class of party-and state bureaucrats, privileged intellectuals, industrial managers, whose numbers swelled during these decades, and collective farm managers. The apparatchiki, that is, members of the apparatus, were stratified according to their position in the hierarchy. The upper echelons had access to special stores where they could buy consumer goods not available to the general public at reasonable prices. In the 1980s, the apparat was rejuvenated with economic, and other experts, whose living did not entirely depend upon the party. This group was better educated than the rest of society and, toward the end of communist rule, were approaching a dominant position in society. At the lower ends, one could find the pensioners and the unskilled workers, especially in the collective farms. They lived in poverty well below minimum standards of living.
The communists proclaimed the equality of the sexes and, because of the enormous demand on labor for the expanding industries, women entered the labor force in large numbers. This had a serious effect on traditional family life. The state provided child care in state nursing homes, giving itself yet another opportunity to indoctrinate the next generations in communist teachings.
At the same time, large numbers of peasants were forced off the land and entered the industrial labor force. By the mid-1970s, a large number of villages had few people left residing in them, mostly old women and men who continued to work in the collective farms. The government introduced policies for villages which unified school systems, and students were often bused for long distances, or were provided boarding schools. Villages whose population included few children were often com-