Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961): Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979).
Szucs, Jeno (1930-1988). Szucs was born into a family whose traditions included memories of lesser nobility in Hungary. He received his education at Eotvos Lorant University in Budapest and, after graduation, he joined the Historical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In spite of his "class alien" family background, he was accepted at the institute. Early in his career, it became obvious that he would become one of the best historians of his generation. He was a political outsider; the more remarkable is, therefore, his rapid advance in the ranks of the institute. He specialized in late-medieval history, and his works were of a path-breaking nature.
He broke into the limelight with the publication of a study on the fifteenth-century development of market towns in Hungary. He was not a prolific writer, but his works exhibited thoroughness of research and a clarity of mind characteristic of the best historians. His studies of early nationalism in Eastern Europe and of the retarded development of peripheral societies raised the attention of historians everywhere. Szucs traveled extensively, and lectured at most of the great universities of Europe and the United States. In 1988, despondent over the death of his close friend, Gyorgy Ranki (see Ranki, Gyorgy), and his personal problems, Szucs committed suicide.
Szucs Jeno, Towns and Handicrafts in Fifteenth-Century Hungary ( Budapest, 1955) (in Hungarian).
Tildy, Zoltan (1889-1961). Tildy, a Calvinist minister, was a small-time politician with little practical experience in running a government. After the elections of the autumn of 1945, Tildy suddenly found himself the leader of the largest political party of Hungary, the Smallholders party. In 1946, he was elected the first president of the Hungarian Republic. In 1947, when Ferenc Nagy (see Nagy, Ferenc) was driven out of his office as prime minister by false charges, Tildy resigned the presidency and was held under house arrest. During the Revolution of 1956 (see Revolution of 1956), Tildy once again came into the limelight and was appointed a member of Imre Nagy's (see Nagy, Imre) cabinet. However, he played no part in the major decisions made by his colleagues. In 1958, as part of the Kadar regime's terrorist campaign, Tildy was sentenced to six years imprisonment. He was freed in 1959 and died as a private citizen.
Nagy Ferenc, The Struggle Behind the Iron Curtain ( New York, 1948).
Vas, Zoltan (1903-1983). Vas was among the first members of the Hungarian Communist party. He joined Bela Kun's group in 1919 and was, after the collapse of the first Hungarian Soviet Republic, sentenced to sixteen years in prison. In 1940, the