General Information . Area: 312,677 square kilometers (120,725 square miles). Population: 37,811,000 in 1988. Urban dwellers: 60 percent of the people; 40 percent live in rural areas. GNP: $65 billion. Railroad network: 23,707 kilometers in 1985. Road network: 153,000 kilometers. Ethnicity: 98 percent Polish, 35,000 Jews, 300,000 Belorussians, 25,000 Gypsies. Borders: In the north, Poland sits on the Baltic sea; in the east, it borders on Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia: in the west, the Oder- Neisse line separates Poland from Germany; in the south, Poland borders on Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Major cities: Warsaw, the capital city, Lodz, Cracow, Wroclaw, Poznan, Gdansk. Geography: The land is mostly flat, except in the southwest where the Carpathian Mountains separate Poland from Slovakia and the Czech republic.
Korbonski Andrzej, "Poland, 1918-1990," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992), pp. 229-276; Halecki Oscar, Poland ( New York, 1955); Heymann Frederick G., Poland and Czechoslovakia ( New York, 1965); Morrison James E, The Polish People's Republic ( Baltimore, MD, 1968).
|1944||August. After encouraging the Polish Home Army to begin its uprising|
against the Germans in Warsaw, the Red Army stopped its advance and per-
mitted the Germans to destroy the Home Army in addition to leveling the Pol-
|1945||January. Soviet troops entered what was left of Warsaw.|
April. The Lublin Committee of National Liberation, a group of Polish com-
munists who were in the Soviet Union during the war, signed a treaty of
friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union. The Soviet government
gave its recognition to the Lublin Committee as the provisional government
|June. The provisional government of Poland formed a cabinet with twenty-|
one ministers. Sixteen ministers came from the Lublin Committee; five from
the Polish government in exile in London.