those who participated in the riots and demonstrations, had received harsh sentences.
With all the changes, however, the situation basically remained the same. The economic priorities, centering on the development of heavy industry, remained in force. The production of consumer goods was not sufficiently expanded. The tax system was changed for the worse, and the leadership did not break with the official policy of "socialized agriculture," frightening peasants with the specter of forced collectivization. A new economic plan, introduced in 1971, promised 1.8 million new jobs and the building of 1.08 million new housing units. It also projected the production of 600,000 small automobiles whose price was to make them affordable for the average worker. On the other hand, Gierek rejected workers' demand for a greater voice in the management of industrial enterprises.
Gierek attempted to solve Poland's chronic economic problems by obtaining large loans from Western banks and governments. The purpose behind the loans was to modernize Polish industry and agriculture and to make them competitive on the world markets. However, most of the funds were not spent productively. They were used, instead, for subsidies for inefficient enterprises, mostly producing for the Soviet and East European market. They also served the purpose of financing a temporary improvement in the living standards. However, the growing indebtedness eventually led to a need to tighten expenditures, and this had an adverse effect on living standards.
In September 1980, Gierek's rule came crashing down. He was dismissed and his policies were repudiated. Only a military dictatorship could have saved the rule of the Communist party, and even then only for a short time. Gierek has retired to private life.
Barker Colin, Festival of the Oppressed: Solidarity, Reform and Revolution in Poland 1980-1981 ( London, 1986); Gross Jan T., "Poland: From Civil Society to Political Nation," in Ivo Banac, ed. Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca, NY, 1992); Simon Maurice D., and Kanet Roger E., eds. Background to Crisis ( New York, 1982).
Glemp, Jozef, Cardinal (1929- ). Born to a peasant family, the future cardinal graduated from high school in 1950, entered Warsaw University, then transferred to Torun before entering the seminary for the priesthood. He was ordained a priest in 1956 and did graduate studies at Lateran and Gregorian Universities in Rome. He received doctorates in canon and civil law.
Glemp returned to Poland in 1964 and was appointed to the secretariat for Higher Priest's Seminary and to the secretariat of the metropolitan Curia. In 1967, he became secretary to Cardinal Wyszynski (see Wyszynski, Cardinal, Stefan) and accompanied the cardinal on his foreign visits. He was also a lecturer at the Catholic theological seminary in Warsaw. At Wyszynski's suggestion, the pope appointed Glemp Bishop of Warmia in 1979. Glemp participated in the work of a commission of government and the episcopate of Poland, considering the granting of legal status to the