Nyers. But Gomulka refused to entertain the proposals seriously, since he considered them ill-concealed efforts to smuggle capitalism back into Poland. On December 13, 1970, he finally decided to make his move for the improvement of the Polish economy. He ordered a broad range of price increases for the next day, without any prior notice to the population. His intention was to prevent a run on the stores. The workers in the Baltic port of Gdansk demonstrated against the increases in front of the local party headquarters. They were fired on by the secret police. Similar confrontations occurred in other cities, and hundreds of workers were killed and wounded. There was a danger of civil war once again, and the leadership of the party decided to oust Gomulka. They replaced him with Edward Gierek, a Silezian leader. (see Gierek, Edward). Gomulka retired to private life and never again participated in politics.
Bethell Nicholas, Gomulka: His Poland and His Communism ( London, 1972); Blit Lucjan, Gomulka's Poland ( New York, 1968); Groth A. J., People's Poland: Government and Politics ( Scranton, PA, 1972); Korbonski Andrzej, "Poland 1918-1990," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992), pp. 229- 276; Morrison J. F., The Polish People's Republic ( Baltimore, MD, 1968); Syrop Konrad, Spring in October. The Story of the Polish Revolution of 1956 ( London, 1958).
Grabski, Stanislaw (1871-1949). Grabski was born and educated in Warsaw. He received a degree in economics from Warsaw University. Between 1910 and 1939, he was a professor at the University of Lvov. Between 1919 and 1927, he served as a deputy in parliament as a member of the National Democratic party. In 1923, and again between 1925 and 1926, he was minister of religious cults and public education. Between 1942 and 1945, Grabski was the chairman of the National Council that served as the parliament of the Polish government-in-exile in London. In July 1945, he returned to Poland with Stanislaw Mikolajczyk (see Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw) and became deputy chairman of the National Council for the Homeland. After 1947, he was a professor of economics at the University of Warsaw, until his death two years later.
Polonsky Antony, and Druiker Boleslaw, The Beginnings of Communist Rule in Poland ( London, 1980).
Inter-Factory Strike Committee (1980-1981). In August 1980, a wave of new strikes hit Poland's industrial regions, in response to the government's announcement of sudden price increases of food staples. By then, Lech Walesa (see Walesa, Lech), a form electrician in the shipyards at Gdansk, a leader of the newly formed Solidarity trade union (see Solidarity Trade Union of Poland), came into contact with members of the Committee for the Defense of Workers (KOR), and the Young Poland movement. These consisted of students and intellectual dissenters.
On August 15, Prime Minister Jozef Babiuch addressed the country on television