Poland to salvage the organization of the Peasant party, as he later claimed. In fact, he collaborated with the communists to subordinate his party to communist domination. However, in October 1948, he was ousted as president of the Peasant party. His removal corresponded to the first drive of the communists for collectivization of agriculture.
Polonsky Antony, and Druiker Boleslaw, The Beginnings of Communist Rule in Poland ( London, 1980).
Kowalski, Aleksander (real name: Czarny, Olek) (1908-1951). Kowalski joined the League of Young Communists in 1927, and the following year he became a member of the Communist party of Poland. Between 1936 and 1937, he was the secretary of the underground communist youth organization and several times he suffered prison terms. When World War II broke out, Kowalski fled to the Soviet Union. In May 1942, he was sent back to Poland as a member of the revived Communist party, the Polish Workers party, and was appointed secretary for the Warsaw region. After the war, he became chairman of the Young Fighters Union, a communist front organization, while remaining a member of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers party. In 1948, he was removed from the leadership, because he was a supporter of Wladislaw Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladislaw) who was accused of nationalist deviation. Kowalski died in 1951.
Dziewanowski, M. K., The Communist Party of Poland (Cambridge, MA, 1976); Staar, Richard F., Poland 1944-1962: The Sovietization of a Caption People (New Orleans, LA, 1962).
Kozlowska, Helena (1906-1967). Kozlowska joined the Polish Communist party in 1929. She was imprisoned several times for illegal activities. After the reemergence of the communists under the name of the Polish Workers party in 1942, Kozlowska was one of the organizers of the party's guerrilla group, the Fighting Youth of Poland. In July 1944, she was a member of the reserve leadership after the Politburo was transferred to German-occupied Poland. During the Warsaw uprising, Kozlowska participated in the communist wing of the People's Army. After the war, she was a member of the communist leadership who organized the Warsaw City Council. From 1944 to 1959, she was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist party. Between 1945 and 1947, she was the deputy director, then director, of the propaganda department of the Central Committee. In 1954 she became the director of the Central Committee's department educating party members in Marxism-Leninism. In 1954, she was appointed to direct the organizational department of the Central Committee of the party. She was then moved to the revisions committee of the central party apparatus.