Kuron and Modzelewski were given a sentence of three and a half years in prison; Michnik was sent to jail for two months.
After his release, Michnik alternated between prison terms and oppositional political activities. In 1964, he enrolled at Warsaw University to study history. Two years later, he was suspended for participating in a discussion led by Leszek Kolakowski, during which the well-known philosopher criticized the communist regime. In 1968, he collaborated with others in organizing a protest against the censor's closing of a play, Forefathers' Eve, by Adam Mickiewicz. He was expelled from the university on the orders of the ministry of higher education.
He went to work as an unskilled factory worker, while his fellow students protested his expulsion. An official campaign was organized against the protesters and, as part of the process, Michnik was again arrested and sentenced to a three-year prison term for allegedly planning to overthrow the communist regime. He was freed after spending a year and a half in jail, and took a job in a factory once more.
In 1971, he left the factory and enrolled at Poznan University as an extension student. In 1975, he received the equivalent of an MA degree in history. In May 1977, he was again arrested, but when widespread protests erupted in the intellectual community against his imprisonment, he was freed after two months. In 1979, he was among the founders of an independent publishing house, and the so-called Flying University, a study-group meeting at private homes, offering lectures by well-known scholars and dissidents. In August 1980, following the strikes in the cities on the Baltic coast, Michnik was arrested once again. The workers of the Interfactory Strike Committee (see Interfactory Strike Committee) made his release one of the conditions of the famous Gdansk agreement. After martial law was declared in December 1981, Michnik found himself in jail again, this time for 30 months. Six months of freedom was followed by another jail term for three years. After the collapse of communism in Poland, Michnik, now a completely free man, remained an advisor to Lech Walesa (see Walesa, Lech) and the Solidarity movement (see Solidarity Trade Union of Poland).
Schell Jonathan, "Introduction to Adam Michnik," Letters from Prison and Other Essays ( Berkeley, CA, 1985).
Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw (1901-1966). Mikolajczyk was an active member of the Peasant party during the 1930s; in 1931, he was deputy chairman of the party. Between 1928 and 1939, he was a Peasant party deputy in the Polish parliament (Sejm). During the exile of Andrzej Witos, Mikolajczyk directed the affairs of the Peasant party. Between 1939 and 1940, he was chairman of the National Council. When Germany attacked Poland in September 1939, Mikolajczyk escaped and went into exile in London.
After the Teheran conference, Winston Churchill informed Mikolajczyk of the Allied decision concerning Poland's eastern and western frontiers, including the