was placed under martial law, military personnel were directed to perform police duties, and a general of the army, Wojciech Jaruzelski (see Jaruzelski, Wojciech), assumed the post of head of the communist party and prime minister of Poland. He was even elected president of the republic but was eventually brushed aside after the collapse of the communist system.
Johnson Ross A., The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Military Policy in Eastern Europe ( New Haven, CT, 1984); Malcher George, Poland's Politicized Army ( New York, 1984); Sanford George, Military Rule in Poland ( London, 1986).
Milosz, Czeslaw (1911- ). Born of professional parents in Lithuania, Milosz received his education in Vilnius, then he moved to Paris where he attended university studies. Already in his early twenties, Milosz began publishing his poems and essays and aroused the interest of Western intellectuals.
In 1939, when Poland was attacked first by Nazi Germany and then by the Soviet Union, Milosz went back to Warsaw and joined the underground resistance. He wrote and edited the underground publications issued by the resistance.
In 1946, he was appointed a member of the Polish diplomatic service. Until 1950, he was stationed at the Polish embassy in Washington, D.C. Then he was transferred to Paris as first secretary for cultural affairs. In February 1951, however, Milosz broke off his relations with the communist government of Poland and went into exile. He stayed in France for a time, but he was subjected to vicious attacks by the French communists. Milosz decided to move to the United States. Since 1960, he has been professor of Slavic languages and literatures at the University of California at Berkeley. He has written volumes of poetry and has published several collections of essays, two books of fiction, and an autobiography. In 1978, Milosz received the Neustadt International Prize for Literature. In 1980, he was awarded the highest literary distinction in the world when he won the Nobel Prize for literature.
Czarnecka Ewa, and Fiut Aleksander, Conversations with Czeslaw Milosz ( San Diego, CA, 1981); Milosz Czeslaw, The Captive Mind ( New York, 1981).
Moczar, Myeczislaw (real name: Mietek) (1913- ). Moczar joined the illegal Polish Communist party in 1937, one year before Joseph Stalin ordered its dissolution. In 1938, he was arrested and put in prison. When the war broke out, he was freed and became one of the leading commanders of the People's Army and the People's Guard, both communist guerrilla bands. He successively commanded the guerrillas in Lodz, Lublin, and Kielce.
After the war, he was appointed a member of the security bureau of the Polish state. Following 1948, he occupied various party and government posts. He was a member of the Polish United Workers party's Central Committee. In 1948, he was purged with Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladis-law). After Gomulka's return to power