on December 31, was proclaimed the provisional national government of the country. In January 1945, the Soviet Union recognized this government as the legitimate authority in Poland. However, at the Yalta meeting, the Western Allies insisted that the provisional government include members of the London-based Polish exile government if it wanted Western recognition. There were already some ostensibly noncommunist members of this government, but they were, in reality, crypto-communists. In 1945, therefore, several members of the "London Poles" were included in the new government They lasted until 1947 when, after the rigged elections, they were forced to flee the country or were arrested and jailed.
Bain Leslie, The Reluctant Satellites ( New York, 1960); Staar Richard F., Poland, 1944-1962: The Sovietization of a Captive People ( New Orleans, LA, 1962).
Ochab, Edward (1906-). Ochab joined the underground Polish Communist party in 1929. In 1936, he was arrested and spent two years in prison. When Germany attacked Poland in 1939, Ochab fled to the Soviet Union. In the German-Soviet war, he served as deputy chief of indoctrination of the troops of the Polish Kosciuszko division under Soviet command. After the war, he worked in various positions in the apparatus of the Polish United Workers party. In 1950, he was appointed a member of the secretariat of the Central Committee of the party. Already in 1948, he was a candidate (nonvoting) member of the party's Politburo, and in 1951 he was promoted to full membership in that body. When Boleslaw Bierut (see Bierut, Boles-law) who replaced Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladislaw) in 1948 died in 1956, his successor was Edward Ochab.
Ochab was a reformer, within limits, of course, who somewhat reduced the role of the secret police in Poland, shifted some investments away from heavy industry, and sought some accommodation with the Roman Catholic church. On June 28-29, the workers in the city of Poznan revolted. They had enough of food shortages, the lack of adequate housing, constantly increasing work norms, and decreasing living standards. They openly deplored the uneven trade with the Soviet Union and denounced the communist bureaucracy.
Ochab ordered the Polish army to suppress the disturbances; over fifty workers were killed, and hundreds were wounded in the skirmishes. This act so demoralized the Polish army that Ochab and his supporters feared a soldiers' revolt. Ochab blamed "imperialist agents" for the workers' uprising at first, using the standard communist propaganda slogans. Then he was forced by circumstances to shift his position and admit that the workers' grievances were real. In spite of strong opposition from the Muscovites, Ochab continued his reformist course. He removed some of the hard- line Stalinists from the communist leadership, and he ordered the exploration of the reasons for the failure of economic policies.
In the meantime, the workers were not intimidated. They proceeded to elect independent workers councils and were becoming increasingly vocal in demanding honest