The prosecutor, Leszek Pietrasinski, named other priests as following Popieluszko's example in inciting hatred against the state. He also presented Popieluszko's murder as a provocation by counterrevolutionaries. He stated that the act was designed to discredit the Polish socialist system in the eyes of the public and of the world. At the same time, Jaruzelski's henchmen began suggesting to Western diplomats that the murder was really instigated by hard-liners in the communist party leadership as a way to scuttle Jaruzelski's "conciliatory efforts" toward the Catholic church.
Monticone Ronald C., The Catholic Church in Communist Poland 1945-1985: Forty Years of Church-State Relations ( Boulder, CO, 1986); Moody John, The Priest Who Had to Die: The Case of Jerzy Popieluszko ( New York, 1987); Sanford George, Military Rule in Poland ( London, 1986).
Poznan Riots of June 1956. Poznan is located in central Poland on the Warta river. The city developed rapidly during the twentieth century, and its port has become a major point of embarkation for the Polish export-import trade. It also became a center of the machine tool and chemical industries. In June 1956, the workers of the city responded to sudden price increases of food and other consumer goods by strikes, demonstrations, and riots. The communist government ordered the army and the secret police to suppress the riots by any means necessary. The troops fired on the demonstrators killing over 50 people and wounding more than 300. This action raised general indignation throughout Poland. The People's Army, so called, killing ordinary people! The army was deeply shaken by its role in Poznan. Its officers and recruits were on the verge of mutiny. The generals declared that, in case of a Soviet invasion, they would order the troops to fight.
Nikita Khrushchev, who was first secretary of the Soviet Communist party at that time, backed off. He did not want to risk a war with Poland, since it could have led to a general conflagration in Eastern Europe. He consented to the installation of Wladislaw Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladislaw) as secretary general of the Polish United Workers party. Gomulka immediately rescinded the price increases and introduced several reforms, but he refused to alter the system in any fundamental way. The victim of the Poznan riots received a memorial in 1980.
Lewis Flora, The Polish Volcano ( London, 1959); Korbonski Andrzej, "Poland, 1919-1990," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Syrop Konrad, Spring in October: The Story of the Polish Revolution of 1956 ( London, 1958).
Rapacki Plan. Adam Rapacki (1909- ) was born in the city of Lvov, which is part of Ukraine today. His father, a professor, was killed during the Warsaw uprising in 1944. Rapacki studied in France and Italy. He was an active member of Socialist Youth, the youth wing of the Polish Social Democratic party. Rapacki spent five