satisfaction that the communist authorities ever expressed in their relation with the Catholic church.
When martial law was imposed on the country, the church began to change its stand. It supported Lech Walesa (see Walesa, Lech), and the other imprisoned leaders and supporters of Solidarity, and it permitted some priests to participate in helping their families. When the outspoken priest, Jerzy Popieluszko (see Popieluszko murder) was murdered by secret policemen, Cardinal Glemp himself conducted his funeral service and spoke out against the lawlessness of the government. With the collapse of the communist system in 1989, the Polish Roman Catholic church assumed a "new" role. Freed of interference by governmental authorities, the church began concentrating once again on its spiritual and cultural role in Polish society.
Chrypinski Vincent C., "Church and Nationality in Postwar Poland," in Pedro Ramet, ed. Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics 2nd ed. ( Durham, NC, 1989), pp. 241-263; Krzywicki Herbert, and Ziemba Walter Z., trans. The Prison Notes of Stefan Cardinal Wyszynszki ( London, 1985). Monticone Ronald C., The Catholic Church in Communist Poland, 1945-1985. ( New York, 1986); Wyszynski, Stefan Cardinal, A Strong Man Armed: Speeches ( New York, 1968); Zmijewski Norbert A., The Catholic-Marxist Ideological Dialogue in Poland, 1945-1980 (Aldershot, Great Britain, 1991).
Rokossowski, Konstanty (1896-1968). Rokossowski joined the Soviet Red Army in 1917. In the purges of Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s, he was tried and sentenced to twenty-five years in prison together with other high-ranking Soviet officers. He could consider himself lucky, because general M. N. Tukhachewsky and other high-ranking generals were executed in the same purges.
At the outbreak of the Nazi-Soviet war, however, Rokossowski was released from the Soviet Gulag and given a division to command. He acquitted himself brilliantly and, in 1944, he was promoted to the rank of marshal. In November 1944, he was appointed commander of the second Belorussian front.
In November 1949, Stalin sent Rokossowski to Poland to assume the post of minister of defense of the Polish state. He was also named deputy prime minister, member of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers party, and a full member of the party's Politburo. Although Rokossowski was instrumental in Sovietizing the Polish army in the 1950s, he remained in the background and did not attempt to cause harm to the Polish people. This was evident in 1956, when he did not prevent the return of Wladislaw Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladislaw) to power. Nevertheless, his presence in Poland was resented because he was a symbol of Soviet domination. When Gomulka assumed the prime ministership, and the post of first secretary of the party, he sent Rokossowski home to the Soviet Union.
Malcher George, Poland's PoliticizedArmy ( New York, 1984).