tion of the Baltic Committee for Free and Independent Trade Unions. In Gdansk, the group was first instructed by Andrzej Gwiazda, an engineer, he was joined by Alina Pienkowska, a nurse in the shipyard, and Bogdan Lis, a young riveter. Their spokeswoman was Anna Walentynowicz (see Walentynowicz), a widowed crane operator. The group worked hard to convince the workers that, by acting together, they were stronger than the secret police. Walesa was a member of the group that decided to issue a newspaper, Worker of the Coast. The title reflected the newspaper of the Committee for the Defense of Workers (KOR) (see Committee for the Defense of Workers), called Worker. At this time, Walesa was not yet considered a potential leader. He remained in the background, observing and learning from the others. After 1976, Walesa worked in the transport section of the factory. He made his name by being a first-class mechanic. His boss told him that, if he just did his job well, he did not care about Walesa's other activities.
In the meantime, Walesa was distributing the Worker of the Coast, and other clandestine leaflets in the factory. He soon aroused the interest of the secret police and was frequently interrogated. At the end of December 1978, he was fired from his job for his political activity. He found a new job in the Gdansk shipyards as an electrician. However, he continued his clandestine activities, and he was, once again, fired. When new protests erupted in the factories in Gdansk after the sudden price increases in the summer of 1980, the workers demanded not only that they be withdrawn but also that Walesa be reinstated.
He was instrumental in the establishment of Solidarity (see Solidarity Trade Union of Poland), and became its most articulate spokesman. On December 31, 1981, he was arrested when martial law was imposed on Poland, together with other leaders of Solidarity and their supporters. Walesa was kept in confinement until 1983 when he was conditionally released. During the Roundtable (see Roundtable Talks in Poland) negotiations in 1988, he was one of the leaders of the workers' representatives. In the presidential elections of 1990, Walesa won the presidency after a runoff. He continues to head the Polish republic as its president.
Brolewicz Walter, My Brother Walesa ( New York, 1984); Craig Mary, Lech Walesa and His Poland ( New York, 1987); Walesa, Lech, A Way of Hope: An Autobiography ( New York, 1987).
Warsaw Pact. Created in May 1955, the Warsaw Pact was named after the city where it was established. It was an alliance, joining the armies of the countries of Eastern Europe under Soviet control. Yugoslavia was excluded, and Albania opted out of the alliance in 1961.
The organizational principle of the Warsaw Pact was the integration of the armed forces of the Soviet Bloc under a unified Soviet command. The commanding general of the Warsaw Pact forces has always been a Soviet citizen. The training manuals, the tactics, and the strategic concepts to be followed in a war with the West were all de-