General Information.Area: 237,500 square kilometers (140,000 square miles). Population: 22,760,449. Road network: 76,598 kilometers (46,158 miles). Railroad network: 11,007 kilometers (4,404 miles). Major cities: Bucuresti (Bucharest), the capital (2.64 million people), Brasov, Cluj, Constanta, Iasi, Timisoara, Ploiesti. Distribution of the population: 37 percent urban, 63 percent rural inhabitants. Total school enrollments: 4,270,877; in higher educational institutions: 137,677. National income: industry, 49.7 percent; agriculture and forestry, 29 percent; transport and communications, 4.1 percent; building trades, 8 percent; trade, 6 percent; other branches, 3.2 percent. Major natural resources: oil, copper, coal, gold, uranium, timber, bauxite, salt, water power. Major products: refined petroleum and derivatives, meat, bread grains, vegetables, fodder, lumber, machinery. The economy uses the metric system. Currency: lei. Geography: the land is varied. In the center of the country, the Carpathian mountains divide its territory into two segments; to the south of the mountains, the land is mostly flat; to the north of the Carpathians, the province of Transylvania is mostly mountainous and hilly country with good, fertile soil in the river valleys. The southern provinces are watered by the Danube river, which is a natural boundary separating Romania from the former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.
Cretianu Alexandre, Captive Romania: A Decade of Soviet Rule ( New York, 1959); Fischer- Stephen Galati , The Socialist Republic of Romania ( Baltimore, MD, 1969); --, Twentieth Century Romania ( New York, 1970); Ratiu Ion, Contemporary Romania: Her Place in World Affairs ( Richmond, Gr. Britain, 1957).
|1944||August. King Michael had General Ion Antonescu arrested, and he surren-|
dered Romania to the Allies. The Red Army promptly occupied Bucharest,
outflanking the Carpathian mountains.
|1945||March. A coalition government, headed by Petru Groza, was established in|
Bucharest. It included the communists who controlled the ministries of the
interior and justice.
|September. At the first meeting of Allied foreign ministers, the U.S. represen-|