Ilie was involved in passing Soviet military secrets and technology to the United States and, at the same time, passing American secrets to the Soviet Union. After the revolution, he disappeared into protective custody.
Almond Mark, The Rise and Fall of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu ( London, 1992); Georgescu, Vlad, Romania: 40 Years (1944-1984) ( New York, 1985); Pacepa Ion Mihai, Red Horizons ( Washington, DC, 1987).
Ceausescu, Marin (1910-1989). The oldest sibling of Nicolae (see Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena), he went with his sister, Maria, to Bucharest in the 1930s in search of work. A year later, he took his youngest brother, Nicolae, with him and found work for him as an apprentice shoemaker. Marin had been on the fringes of the Romanian Communist party, and he introduced Nicolae to his friends in the organization when Nicolae was only fourteen. Maria was probably acquainted with Gheorghe Petrescu, another former peasant lad, now living in the capital city. Petrescu's sister, Elena, eventually became Nicolae's wife and political associate.
In the late 1970s, Marin Ceausescu was appointed deputy minister of foreign affairs by his brother Nicolae and became permanent Romanian representative of trade in Vienna, Austria. He received millions in foreign currencies from Romania, which were used to satisfy the earthly needs of the Ceausescu family. He acted as a procurer of Western television sets, video cameras, VCRs, and other goods not available to ordinary Romanians. When he learned about the overthrow of his brother, Marin Ceausescu committed suicide.
Behr Edward, Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite ( New York, 1991).
Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena (1918-1989; 1918-1989). Nicolae Ceausescu was born into a typical peasant family in the Regat (the former Vallachia). His father was a brutal, self-centered drunkard. His mother, Alexandra, was a deeply religious, but contentious, woman who raised a brood of eleven children under very difficult circumstances. Nicolae left school at the age of eleven. By then, his older brother, Marin (see Ceausescu, Marin) and his sister, Maria, were living in Bucharest, and they took young Nicolae with them. They found work for him as an apprentice shoemaker. Nicolae lived with his brother and sister, and increased his income by petty theft.
By the time he was sixteen, Nicolae was involved with a communist front organization, the Romanian Antifascist Committee, headed by Gheorghe Apostol (see Apostol, Gheorghe). Nicolae acted as one of the organization's carriers. In December 1935, he was arrested for the first time for the possession of antigovernment pamphlets. He was freed after two months. In two years, however, he found himself in jail once again for a similar offense. While in prison, he joined the Romanian Communist party, whose leaders were locked up in the same building. He met Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, (see Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe) and became a protege of the much