lin had died. His successors abandoned some of the shibboleths of Stalinist times. The Romanian communists dutifully followed the Soviet example and introduced their own "new course," but the central planning of the economy was not abandoned. Industrial expansion was, for a time, slowed down. Between 1956 and 1958, the central planning office abolished the system of compulsory deliveries of food by the collectives and increased the wages of industrial workers by 15 percent. Nevertheless, the central planning office continued to micro- and macromanage the Romanian economy. After 1959, the office played a major role in the renewed drive for industrialization and assumed an even more important position during the Ceausescu years after 1965. The central planning office was finally abolished in 1990 after the completion of the revolution that overthrew the communist regime.
Gilberg Trond, Modernization in Romania Since World War II ( New York, 1975); Montias John M. , Economic Development in Communist Romania ( Cambridge, MA, 1967); Turnock David , The Economic Geography of Romania ( London, 1974).
Communist Party of Romania. The Romanian Communist party was founded in 1921. It was a small, insignificant organization that could not become a major force in Romanian national life without heavy outside support. The party began a series of terrorist actions in the early 1920s and was, therefore, declared illegal in 1924. Further repressive action was taken by the government in 1936, when all the known leaders of the party were imprisoned. By then, the Romanian Communist party was directed by the COMINTERN, which also provided funds for its operations. The jailing of the leaders eliminated the party as a political force in Romanian society.
In 1944, when the party was revived, it had less than 1,000 members. Some of its leaders, who had fled to the Soviet Union, or were exchanged for Romanian officers after 1940, returned. At first, party membership consisted mostly of ethnic minorities who were persecuted during the interwar years. This was reflected in the leadership that consisted of three factions: the Muscovites (leaders who spent the war years in Moscow), including Vasile Luca (see Luca, Vasile) and Ana Pauker (see Pauker, Ana); the local communists who were in jail, headed by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (see Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe) and Lucretiu Patrascanu (see Patrascanu, Lucretiu); and "free floaters," such as Emil Bodnaras (see Bodnaras, Emil), who were jailed at fast but were freed after spending their allotted time in prison. The Muscovites were the dominant faction in 1944, and they remained in this position until 1952.
In 1952, Ana Pauker and Vasile Luca were eliminated. Gheorghiu-Dej became the undisputed leader, and he eliminated his opposition one by one. He also began cautiously to distance Romania from the Soviet Union, and he appealed more and more to national sentiment Gheorghiu-Dej was a Stalinist; he accepted the Stalinist method of modernization, and the party that he led organized the rapid industrialization of Romania. He also believed that the process had to be accompanied by the collectivization of the peasantry, and the drive for this began in 1949. He also enforced the