The next level of organization was in the counties. The county committees and other party organizations were carbon copies of the higher party organs. The first secretary of the county party committee was also a member of the Central Committee. Party cells in the lower levels were to meet once every two months to approve the directives of the county authorities, but the actual meetings simply approved actions without debate. There were 40 county organizations, 237 city and municipal party sections, and 2705 cells in village communities. In addition, 8,500 cells operated in factories and other places of work in 1987. The basic cells existed in every institution, factory, collective farm, and mass organization. Their size varied between 3 and 300 members. Each cell had a secretary and a deputy secretary; the larger cells had a secretariat. These groups supervised the activities of local government organs or managements.
The communist apparatus, therefore, reached 'into practically every segment of Romanian society. From the initial membership of 1,000 in 1944, the party had grown to 2 million by 1948. In 1988, party statistics had shown a membership list of 3,709,000 people, or about 15.8 percent of the total population of the country. Its mass organizations included the Communist Youth of Romania (an imitation of the Soviet KOMSOMOL), the Pioneers for smaller youngsters, organizations for women, and so on. They all served the role of disseminating party directives and mobilizing the populations for the party's purposes.
All this disappeared in the revolution of December 1989. The Communist party disintegrated; its membership disappeared. In the 1992 elections, however, the party reappeared in two new incarnations, one bearing the name, Romanian Socialist party, the other running under its old designation. Neither of them succeeded in gaining substantial voter support.
Gilberg Trond, "Multiple Legacies of History: Romania in 1990," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); King, Robert R. , History of the Romanian Communist Party (Stanford, CA, 1980); Nelson Daniel N., Romania in the 1980s ( Boulder, CO, 1981); Tismaneanu Vladimir, Personal Power and Elite Change in Romania ( Philadelphia, PA, 1989).
Cornea, Doina (?- ). Cornea has been one of the bravest, most active and incisive critics of the Ceausescu regime. A teacher of the French language in the Transylvanian city of Cluj, she denounced the economic and moral disaster that Romania had become in the late 1970s and 1980s. She sent letters abroad, to Radio Free Europe and to prominent Western statesmen and governments. Radio Free Europe immediately broadcast the letters in its Romanian language programs, but governments and individual statesmen did not take her letters seriously.
The Ceausescu clan took personal affront at her criticisms. She was treated harshly; she was insulted and even beaten by the thugs of the secret police. Eventually, she was confined to her house and was not permitted to have visitors. The Amer