a hydroelectric power station on the Danube river at the Iron Gate. The joint investment was to come to $400 million.
In the general assembly of the United Nations, Romania voted a few times against the Soviet Union, when it was safe and was not against direct Soviet interests. In response, the British and the French governments upgraded their diplomatic missions to embassies in Bucharest Gheorghiu-Dej, therefore, gradually assumed the stance of a "national" communist and, in the process, he gained in popularity not only among Romanians but also among foreign governments. He took further steps to reduce Soviet influence in Romania. The Maxim Gorky Institute in Bucharest was closed down. The compulsory teaching of the Russian language in Romanian schools was discontinued. Streets named after the "Soviet liberators" reverted to their original Romanian names. He even released some political prisoners. This development, however, did not last long. In late 1964, Gheorghiu-Dej suddenly became ill. His illness was diagnosed as terminal cancer. In a few months, he was dead. He left behind a leadership whose members were engaged in a struggle over the succession. Gheorghe Apostol (see Apostol, Gheorghe), Alexandru Draghici (see Draghici, Alexandru), and Nicolae Ceausescu were the contenders. Eventually, Ceausescu came out the victor.
Cretianu Alexandru, Captive Romania: A Decade of Soviet Rule ( New York, 1956); Fischer- Stephen Galati , The Socialist Republic of Romania ( Baltimore, MD, 1962); Georgescu Vlad, ed. Romania: 40 Years (1944-1984)( New York, 1985); Gilberg Trond, "The Multiple Legacies of History: Romania in 1990," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Ionescu Ghita, Communism in Romania 1944-1962 ( Cambridge, MA, 1967); Markham Reuben, Romania Under the Soviet Yoke ( Boston, MA, 1949); Matley Ian M., Romania: A Profile ( New York, 1970).
Goma, Paul (1930-). In 1977, following the publication of the declaration of human rights activists in Communist Czechoslovakia, the Charter 77, Paul Goma wrote an open letter to Romanian party leader Nicolae Ceausescu (see Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena). He complained about the suppression of human rights in Romania, in spite of the fact that Ceausescu had signed the Helsinki Final Act, guaranteeing civil and human rights for all citizens. Goma, a well-known writer, had been jailed in the 1950s for his human rights activities, and his contempt for the communist dictatorship, masquerading as a democracy, was public knowledge. Between January and April 1977, Goma had written several letters and appeals, and he had obtained the signatures of some 200 intellectuals in support of his views. Goma was persecuted in every possible way, but he was not jailed.
Ceausescu was enraged by his letters; he personally ordered the secret police to have the writer severely beaten by a former boxer. None of this silenced the courageous writer. On April 1, he was finally arrested, but an aroused Western public opinion saved Goma's life. He was allowed to leave Romania. He settled in Paris, and continued his criticism of the Ceausescu regime from abroad. Finally, the dictator