Behr Edward, Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite. ( New York, 1991). Almond Mark, The Rise and Fall of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu ( London, 1992).
Multilateral Development in Romania. With the ascendance of Nicolae Ceausescu (see Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena) to the leadership of the Romanian Communist party in 1965, the party's goals were not changed. However, the control of society was intensified through the extensive use of the secret police. At the same time, Ceausescu announced the "multilateral development" of Romanian society. This concept originally meant that every section and structure of society, including the economy, cultural life, and social institutions would be developed at the same speed. It turned out, however, that the investment policies did not change; this meant that the agricultural sector did not develop at the same speed as industry.
At the same time, the party increased its propaganda efforts to convince Romanians that they were better off under the Ceausescu regime than at any other time in Romanian history. If one sector was developed faster than any other, it was the institution entrusted with ideology and propaganda. New seminars were established in factories, offices, and collective farms, as well as in schools, with the intention of indoctrinating the entire population in Marxism-Leninism. Censorship was strengthened in cultural life. Periodic purges in cultural institutions served the purpose of tightening discipline. Even the Bucharest opera company was subjected to close supervision by the secret police. Only creative people willing and able to conform to the principles of "socialist realism" could publish or have their works exhibited.
Life on every level became saturated with politics. "Voluntary" weekend work was encouraged, and those who refused became marked. Material incentives were scarce, and the intensified propaganda campaign was intended to offset their absence. Special titles, medals, and certificates were given to workers who exceeded the work norms in lieu of higher wages. The propaganda organs also made great efforts to root out old values, such as religious convictions and individualism. Love of private property was especially singled out for scorn. The establishment of circles of friends was discouraged. Multilateral development, thus, ended as a propaganda effort by the party leaders that justified itself in their eyes by its very existence.
Gilberg Trond, "The Multiple Legacies of History: Romania in 1990," in Joseph Held, ed., The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Graham Lawrence S. , Romania: A Developing Socialist State ( Boulder, 1982).
National Democratic Front in Romania. Created in October 1944, the purpose of this communist front organization was to help the Communist party gain a monopoly of political power. The front included the Communist and Social Democratic parties, the Plowmen's Front, the Union of Patriots, and the Trade Union Alliance.