lated by the odd and even numbers of license plates. Automobile travel on Sundays was altogether banned. The lighting of homes was restricted to two hours a day, and the use of light bulbs of higher than forty Volts was prohibited. Fuel for home heating was also severely restricted. Cold apartments and even colder workplaces in winter were becoming the norm. Workers in factories and offices labored with their overcoats and gloves on, which certainly did not increase their productivity. The domestic energy crisis became a permanent feature of Romanian life, and it led to a serious decline in the standard of living. The Western loans obtained by the government were not used to change the nature of the crisis. They were swallowed up by projects inspired by Ceausescu's gigan-tomania. The economic decline that began with the oil crisis undermined whatever prestige the regime had at home and abroad and contributed to its overthrow in 1989.
Jordan Constantine, The Romanian Oil Industry ( New York, 1955); Shafir Michael, Romania: Politics, Economics and Society ( Boulder, CO, 1985); Turnock David, The Economic Geography Romania ( London, 1974).
Pacepa, Ion, Mihai ( 1930-). Pacepa was a trusted adviser of the Ceausescus (see Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena) in the 1970s, completely familiar with the inner workings of the Ceausescu clan and the highest echelons of the Romanian Communist party. He was also familiar with the operations of the Romanian secret service, especially its spying in Western countries. He directed operations of influence in the United States, Great Britain, and West Germany. Pacepa was present in the secret discussions that Ceausescu held with Yassir Arafat, chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, whose purpose was to find means to have the PLO accepted as a legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. Pacepa knew about the operations directed against Western firms for the illegal acquisition of technology, both civilian and military. He also knew about Ceausescu's double dealings with the West and the Soviet Union.
By 1978, Pacepa had enough. His carefully planned defection to the United States had dramatic results. Hundreds of East European secret agents operating in the West were withdrawn. The Romanian agency for foreign influence was disbanded. When Pacepa's memoires, entitled Red Horizons, were published in 1987, the book became an instant sensation. It provided an insight for the Western public into the manipulations used by the Ceausescus for Western acceptance. Pacepa, now a U.S. citizen, resides in the United States under an assumed identity.
Pacepa Ion Mihai, Red Horizons ( New York, 1987).
Patrascanu, Lucretiu (?-1954). The son of a wealthy Moldavian landowner, Patrascanu attended university studies and became a lawyer. His wife was a well- known interior decorator. In the late 1930s, he joined the underground Communist