identification with ethnic minorities. Ceausescu was determined to force them into becoming Romanians.
In November 1989, the courageous stand of one Protestant clergyman, Laszlo Tokes (see Tokes, Laszlo) of Timisoara, started the avalanche that was to bury the communist regime in Romania. Tokes openly defied the regime, calling on religious people everywhere to raise their voices against persecution in Romania. His anguished cry against injustice aroused not only Hungarians but also the Romanian people against Ceausescu. After the successful revolution, restrictions on religious activities were removed, and a new relationship is being built between the government and religious institutions.
Gilberg Trond, "Religion and Nationalism in Romania," in Pedro Ramet, ed. Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics ( Durham, NC, 1989).
Roman, Petru ( 1930-). Roman's father was a communist official, and he received a university education. After graduation, he became a party apparatchik. After the revolution of 1989, Roman was elected Prime Minister of Romania. However, he and President Ion Iliescu did not agree on the necessity of the rapid transformation of Romania's economy. They also disagreed on the pace political reforms should follow. Roman was involved in the government's effort to suppress the opposition, and he, together with President Iliescu, provided the troop of miners of the Jiu Valley, who rampaged through the capital city, Bucharest, four times during 1990, destroying printing shops and newspapers of the opposition parties. They also beat up antigovernment demonstrators, and some leaders of the opposition parties.
When the miners returned to Bucharest for the fourth time in September 1990, they had done great harm not only in the capital city, but also in the countryside while they were under way. As a consequence, President Iliescu dismissed Petru Roman's government, accusing the Prime Minister of complicity in the events. Roman then split the governing coalition, the National Salvation Front, and took some of its parliamentary deputies with him, forming a new party. However, they were not able to prevent the reelection of Ion Iliescu as President of Romania.
Shafir Michael, and Ionescu Don, "Political Change and Economic Malaise in Romania," Radio Free Europe Research Report 1.1 ( January 3, 1992), pp. 108-112; Shafir Michael, "The New Romanian Government," Radio Free Europe Research Report 1.2 ( January 12, 1992), pp. 35-38.
Romanian-Soviet Relations in the Post-Stalin Era . While Soviet dictates forced all East European countries to embark on a rapid, forced industrialization based on the development of heavy industry in the 1960s, Soviet policies dictated a change of directions in economic policies. Joseph Stalin prevented multilateral economic relations among the Soviet Bloc countries. He insisted on the conclusion of bilateral