munist organization. The Romanian Workers party was declared to be a member of the United Democratic Popular Front of Romania. Elections were held on March 28, 1948, and, predictably, the front's single fist candidates won an overwhelming victory. During the year, arrests of suspected opponents of communism continued, and victims disappeared into prisons and concentration camps. In 1954, Lucretiu Patrascanu (see Patrascanu, Lucretiu), the minister of justice in the Sanatescu government after August 23, 1944, was tried, together with several local communist leaders, and he was executed. Others received long prison terms or were killed. The terror slackened somewhat after the death of Joseph Stalin, but it never disappeared completely from Romanian society. It was the only means that could secure the rule of the communists.
Georgescu Vlad, Romania: 40 Years, 1944-1984 ( New York, 1985); Ionescu Ghita, Communism in Romania 1944-1962 ( New York, 1964); Jowitt Kenneth, Revolutionary Breakthroughs and National Development: The Case of Romania, 1945-1965 ( Berkeley, CA, 1971); King Robert, History of the Romanian Communist Party ( Stanford, CA, 1980).
Stanilization of Romania. During 1948, Romanian society was forced into the Stalinist pattern of development. All major enterprises in banking, industry, mining, transportation, and communications were confiscated from their previous owners without compensation. A long list of joint Romanian-Soviet enterprises was created, headed by Soviet directors who set the price of their products and organized their activities under Soviet personnel. At the same time, the state began to establish machine- and tractor stations in the countryside, a preliminary step before the collectivization of land began. A central planning office was created with the task of setting up a plan for the socialization of the national economy. The Romanian army was reorganize. Its soldiers received Soviet-style uniforms, and were equipped with outdated Soviet arms. A system of political commissars was introduced. In 1948, after the break between Joseph Stalin and Marshal Tito occurred, Romania, together with other satellites, was assigned a special role in the expected military conflict with Yugoslavia. The headquarters of the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM) was transplanted to Bucharest from its previous location in Belgrade. In a few short years, therefore, Romania was transformed into a Soviet satellite, with all the characteristics shared by the other colonies of the Soviet Union's East European empire.
Cretzianu Alexandru, Captive Romania: A Decade of Soviet Rule ( New York, 1956); Georgescu Vlad, Romania: 40 Years 1944-1984 ( New York, 1985); Graham Lawrence S., Romania: A Developing Socialist State ( Boulder, CO, 1982).
"Systematization" in Romania. This scheme was initiated by Nicolae Ceausescu (see Ceausescu, Nicolae and Elena) ostensibly to equalize conditions in the rural and urban areas of Romania and, incidentally, to increase agricultural production by pro-