the order to remove Tokes from the city. This created disorders and demonstrations, and the police fired on the crowd, killing forty and wounding several hundred people. The disorders spread to other cities, including Bucharest, and the Ceausescu clan was overthrown on December 22.
The Reverend Tokes returned to his congregation, and he became an important leader of a new political party, the Democratic Association of Romanian-Hungarians. His party became the second strongest party in the elections of 1991, and it joined the Democratic Convention in 1992.
Nelson Daniel N., ed. Romania after Tyranny ( Boulder, CO, 1992); Pacepa Ion Mihai, Red Horizons ( Washington, DC, 1987).
Urban Development in Romania. Various efforts were made in Romania during the interwar decades by various governments to expand the number of industries and, parallel with it, to help urbanization. Many of the processes that the communists claimed to have originated with their rule, had actually began during the old regime. However, it was the speed and depth of industrialization initiated by the communist government that was new in Romanian history. In the process of creating a Soviet- style command economy, based on long-range central planning, all productive forces and the overwhelming majority of investments were concentrated in industrial expansion. Since most industries were located in urban areas, there was a corresponding movement of the population to these regions. By 1972, 8.5 million Romanians, out of a total population of 22 million, were living in urban centers. Of these people 6.9 million lived in 77 cities and towns with populations of less than 20,000 but more than 5,000 people each. Thirty-eight towns were declared to have become cities.
Constantinescu Miron, Henry H. Stahl, and Ion Dragan, et al. eds. Urban Growth Processes in Romania ( Bucharest, 1974); Tsantis Andreas C., and Pepper Roy, Romania: The Industrialization of an Agrarian Economy Under Socialist Planning ( Baltimore, MD, 1979).
Warsaw Pact and Romania. Romania was among the founding members of the Warsaw Pact when the alliance was formed in 1955. According to the charter, Soviet troops were stationed in each of the participating countries as a defensive force against the so-called "revanchist" forces of West Germany, the United States, and NATO. However, in 1956, the Romanian government was able to extract a statement from Nikita Khrushchev to the effect that Soviet troops were in Romania only on a temporary basis. As soon as Romania's own army was able to secure the integrity of the socialist state, the Soviet troops were to be withdrawn. In 1958, the promise of withdrawal was fulfilled. Romania had facilitated the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution two years before and, therefore, had earned the gratitude of the Soviet leaders.
This was also part of the effect of the Sino-Soviet dispute. In that year, Chinese