The proposal, ready by 1956, was, as Colakovic announced, based on the principles of Marxism-Leninism. Colakovic continued to be politically active until the death of Marshal Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz), when he retired from political life.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Rusinow Denison, The Yugoslav Experiment 1948-1974 ( Berkeley, CA, 1977).
Communist Party of Yugoslavia . During the election campaign of 1920, a new party emerged on the Yugoslav political scene. This party was not about to wait patiently for the "inevitable collapse" of bourgeois society. It was to hasten the process through a series of terrorist actions. Consequently, the Communist party was declared illegal in 1921, and its leaders and few members went underground. From 1924 on, the Yugoslav Communist party was the willing instrument of Soviet foreign policies through the COMINTERN. The Yugoslav party followed faithfully all directions from the Soviet leadership. It declared that the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, as the state was called until 1926, was illegitimate because it was the product of a capitalist conspiracy called the Versailles treaty. It declared that the government of the kingdom was an agent of French imperialism and it would have to be destroyed.
Until 1928, the Communist party of Yugoslavia worked hard and diligently for this purpose. The party found it convenient to collaborate with the Croatian fascists, the Ustashi, and the Bulgarian-Macedonian Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), another terrorist group, since all these groups shared the same purpose. From 1935, however, the tactics of the COMINTERN had changed. Fearing the rise of Nazism and Adolf Hitler into power in Germany, communists throughout Europe switched to support coalitions of center-right parties, the so-called popular fronts, and the Yugoslav communists followed suit.
By 1937, most Yugoslav communist exiles in the Soviet Union were dead. They had been killed in Joseph Stalin's purges of foreign communists. A new man emerged on the scene, Josip Broz, who took the conspiratorial name of Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz). He was sent back to Yugoslavia by the COMINTERN to reorganize the dispirited remnants of the illegal Communist party and to appoint people who were unquestionably loyal to him and to the Soviet Union, into leadership positions. In 1939, the Yugoslav Communist party had about 1,000 members. By 1941, the membership had increased to 12,000. In 1946, 258,000 people joined the Yugoslav Communist party and this number had increased to 482,000 by 1948.
The Yugoslav Communist party directed part of the resistance to the German occupiers (the other part was organized by Dragoljub-Draza Mihajlovich and his Chetnicks) (see Mihajlovich Dragoljub, Draza), and it fought a war on two fronts. One was against the Germans, the other, against other resistance groups. The seasoned core of the party, having spent most of its time in underground activities where conspiracy was a way of life, quickly adapted to the new situation after 1941.