of Communists of Yugoslavia, and to the presidium of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia, a grand-sounding group that was a mass-organization dominated by communists. In 1953, he became the president of the Executive Council of the People's Assembly of Montenegro, and ex officio member of the Federal Executive Council, that is, the government. When Vladimir Dedijer (see Dedijer, Vladimir) was dismissed for his support of Milovan Djilas (see Djilas, Milovan) in 1954, Jovanovic took Djilas' post and became director of the information and propaganda department of the federal government, and editor-in-chief of Borba, the party's daily newspaper. He retired to private life in the late 1970s.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Ramet Pedro, ed. Yugoslavia in the 1980s ( Boulder, CO, 1985).
Karadzic, Radovan (1926-). Karadzic, a Serb, spent his life fighting for Serb supremacy in the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina. When Yugoslavia fell apart to its constituent states, Karadzic met his Croatian counterpart, a member of the Croatian Democratic Alliance's leadership, at the Austrian city of Graz. The result was an unwritten agreement to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina between Croatia and Serbia. Karadzic proclaimed that an independent Bosnia-Herzegovina would provide no guarantees for the survival of ethnic Serbs, since a central government dominated by Muslims would repress the Orthodox Christian Serbs. When the Bosnian government refused to accept Serb autonomy, Karadzic led the Bosnian Serb forces in a war of "ethnic cleansing."
The war was fought with great ferocity on both sides. The Serbs had the upper hand, because they received armament and supplies from the Serb government and the army. They besieged the major Bosnian cities, indiscriminately shelling and sniping at the population. Their aim was to force the Moslems to leave Bosnia- Herzegovina or be killed. They did not distinguish among children, women and the old; they were all targets for Serb gunners. Tens of thousands of people were killed in the carnage.
In January, 1993, Croatia made an agreement with the Bosnian Muslims, which provided for joint action against the Serbs. At the same time, Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen, two statesmen from the United States and Great Britain, respectively, presented a peace plan for the settling of the Bosnian crisis. Their proposal included the establishment of ten ethnically pure regions that would be parts of a new Bosnian state. They also called for a meeting of the warring parties to Geneva to refine the proposal. Karadzic disliked the proposal, because it meant that the Serbs would have to give up some of their territorial gains. Karadzic's purpose continued to be to conquer enough land in order to connect Bosnian Serb territories with those of Serbia proper. The Geneva meeting ended with the signatures of Karadzic and Alija Izethegovic. However, the war did not stop. It continues to take thousands of lives in Bosnia-Herzegovina.