Cohen Lenard J., Broken Bonds. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia ( Boulder, CO, 1993).
Kardelj, Edvard (1910-). A Slovenian by birth, Kardelj received a diploma from the Teacher's College of Ljubljana. When he was only twelve years old, he joined the Communist party, and in 1928, he became a regular member. He was arrested for subversive activities in 1930 and was put into prison for two years. In 1934, Kardelj left Yugoslavia. For a short time he lived in Paris, then traveled to Moscow. He attended the Communist party school where foreign communists received training in party organization and clandestine activities.
Kardelj returned to Yugoslavia with Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz) in 1937, and became one of the most trusted friends of the Yugoslav communist leader. His excellent training in Marxism-Leninism made him invaluable to Tito. He was the chief theoretician of the Yugoslav Communist party. He wrote many articles for Slovenian leftist newspapers and periodicals under the name of "Sperans," that is, the Hopeful. He acquired a reputation as a commentator on international affairs. He remained at Tito's side during the war of liberation against the Germans. He wrote various ideological instruction for the partisan commissars and prepared legislative texts that the partisan government of Tito issued.
Beginning in 1943, Kardelj was vice president of the Liberation Council. He was appointed deputy prime minister in the first Yugoslav government after World War II. He was also head of the Communist party's control commission and was in charge of the ministry in preparation for the Constituent Assembly. He headed the Yugoslav delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1946 and was one of the signers of the peace treaty with Italy. He was appointed head of the Yugoslav delegation to the United Nations Assembly in 1945, and again in 1948, 1949, 1950 and 1951.
In 1953, after the reform of the constitution, Kardelj was appointed first vice president of the government. He was mainly responsible for the text of the new constitution and the other basic laws that decentralized the federal administration and the management of the economy. He was then appointed secretary of the Executive Committee of the Communist party (the name for the Politburo), and of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia. He was politically active throughout the 1960s but retired at the end of the period into private life.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Denitch Bogdan D., The Legitimation of a Revolution: The Yugoslav Case ( New Haven, CT, 1976); Kardelj Edvard, The Communist Party of Yugoslavia in the Struggle for New Yugoslavia, for People's Authority and for Socialism ( Belgrade, 1948); Neal F. Warner, Titoism in Action: The Reforms in Yugoslavia after 1948 ( Berkeley, 1958); Rusinow Dennison, The Yugoslav Experiment 1948-1977 ( London, 1977).
Kidric, Boris (1919-1952). One of the most brutal, ruthless communist leaders in Tito's (see Tito, Josip Broz) Yugoslavia, Kidric was born in Vienna, Austria, where