Anthony H., Archbishop Stepinac: The Man and His Case ( Westminster, MD, 1947); Pattee Richard , The Case of Cardinal Stepinac ( Milwaukee, WI, 1953); Pavlowitch Stevan K., "The Orthodox Church in Yugoslavia: The Problem of the Macedonian Church," Eastern Churches Review, 4 (Winter, 1967- 1968), pp. 380-381; Petrovich Michael B., "Yugoslavia: Religion and the Tensions of a Multinational State," East European Quarterly, 6. 1 ( March 1972), pp. 122-126; Ramet Pedro, "Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslavia," in Pedro Ramet, ed, Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics ( Durham, NC, 1989).
Ribar, Ivan (1881-?). Ribar, who received a doctor of law degree from the University of Belgrade, developed into one of the leading noncommunist supporters of communism. He was also a strong supporter of the Yugoslav idea, that is, that the south Slav nations should be united in a federated state in the Balkans. He was elected to the Yugoslav National Assembly in the 1920s several times and served until 1938. He was a member of the Democratic party.
In 1941, Ribar joined the partisan army of Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz). His two sons were with him, and one of them, Ivo Ribar-Lola, was a member of the Communist party, secretary to the Communist Youth Association. Ivo was killed fighting against the Germans in 1944. His father, Ivan, was showered with all sorts of honors. He was a token noncommunist in Tito's entourage without any influence whatsoever. When his second son was killed, he was regarded as the epitome of a father giving his all for the people's struggle. In 1943, he was appointed president of the People's Liberation Assembly, a sort of apparent parliament, and in 1945-1946, he became president of the Constituent Assembly. He then became president of parliament, a post that he held until 1953, when he retired.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Djilas Milovan, Wartime ( London, 1977).
Sandzak. In the nineteenth century and early in the twentieth, the Sandzak was known as the Sandzak of Novi Pazar. This region, earlier known as the Serbian Raska, was the center of the first Serbian state of the eleventh century. Until 1870, the whole area belonged to the Ottoman empire. Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia- Herzegovina in 1878 and also attached the Sandzak of Novi Pazar to its territory. Serb nationalists were outraged by these actions and hoped to extend the boundaries of Greater Serbia by including Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Sandzak of Novi Pazar in their state. This was essential, according to them, in order to create a viable economy for the Serb state. When the Austro-Hungarian state finally declared the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, it relinquished its rights to Novi Pazar which, then, reverted to Ottoman suzerainty.
During the Second Balkan War of 1913, Serbia and Montenegro conquered and divided the Sandzak between them, ending Ottoman control over the region. Between 1913 and 1943, the Sandzak was part of Serbia and Montenegro, thus also a part of Yugoslavia. In 1943, Tito's partisan government declared the Sandzak once again an autonomous region, but in 1945, its autonomy was withdrawn.