50,000 members of the Communist party were purged and probably killed by the Titoist secret police, the UDBA, during the controversy. Tito's new Communist party was based mostly on young peasant recruits and some urban workers. For them, Stalin was a foreigner in a remote country; Tito was one of them; he belonged to them. Thus, Tito succeeded in defying the Soviet dictator and was able to provide the first model for independent development for the East European nations.
Bass Robert, and Marbury Elizabeth, eds. The Soviet-Yugoslov Controversy, 1948-1958: A Documentary Record ( New York, 1964); Halperin Ernest, The Triumphant Heretic: Tito's Struggle Against Stalin ( New York, 1958); Ulam Adam, Titoism and the COMINFORM ( Cambridge, MA, 1952); White Book on the Aggressive Activities by the Governments of the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Albania Toward Yugoslavia ( Belgrade, 1951); Zwick Peter, National Communism ( Boulder, CO, 1983); Volgyes Ivan , Politics in Eastern Europe ( Chicago, IL, 1986).
Stambolic, Petar (1912-?). Stambolic, a Serb, became involved with the activities of the illegal Communist party while still a teenager. He became a card-carrying member of the party in 1933. In 1937, he was a close supporter of Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz) when he reorganized the Yugoslav Communist party. In 1941, he became a member of Tito's Supreme Headquarters, and he was entrusted with the organization of the Partisan army in Serbia. In 1943, he was appointed a member of the People's Liberation Council. Stambolic was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1945. In 1946, he was elected to membership in the federal parliament and the Serbian parliament simultaneously, and he remained a deputy until his retirement. In 1952, he became prime minister of the Republic of Serbia. In 1953, Stambolic was president of the Presidium of the Serbian parliament. He was also a member of the Politburo of the League of Yugoslav Communists (the Communist party). In March 1956, Stambolic was the keynote speaker at the plenum of the Central Committee of the party. He retired into private life in the late 1970s.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Hoffman George, and Neal F. Warner, Tito's Yugoslavia ( Berkeley, CA, 1960); Vucinich Wayne, ed. Contemporary Yugoslavia ( Berkeley, CA, 1969); Volgyes Ivan, Politics in Eastern Europe ( Chicago, IL, 1986).
Tito, Josip Broz (1892-1980). Josip Broz was born in Kumrovec, a small Croatian village, into a family of mixed Croatian and Slovenian ancestry. His father was an independent craftsman. In 1914, Broz was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian armies and fought on the Russian front. He was captured in 1915 by the Russians and joined the Bolsheviks while still in a prisoner-of-war camp. In 1918, he fought at Omsk against the Whites. The following year, he returned home, into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, and he participated in the establishment of the Croatian Communist party which was, at that time, a strong, effective organization.