ered to be Yugoslavia's national interests to those of the Soviet Union. He did not care if his Soviet friends were embarrassed by his actions. He soon forced the royalists and the democrats out of the government and sent them into exile. They could count themselves lucky to get out alive. He simply forbade King Peter II to return to Yugoslavia, and the country was declared a republic.
An open break with Stalin in 1948 cast Yugoslavia out of the Soviet Bloc, but this only enhanced Tito's authority in Yugoslavia. In order to compensate for Soviet ostracism, Yugoslavia joined the nonaligned nations, and Tito became a respected figure among the other leaders as the Egyptian Gemal Abdel Nasser and India's Jawaharlal Nehru. Tito's relations with the Western Allies were more ambiguous. On the one hand, his regime desperately needed Western economic aid and he did receive it. On the other hand, he remained, till the end of his life, a convinced Marxist-Leninist, and he often criticized the West for its policies.
During the last years of his life, Tito succumbed to the temptations of unlimited power. His ego had been fed by the sycophants around him. His luxurious lifestyle (he had a retreat on the island of Brioni, and he had a "royal" yacht that was furnished with all imaginable amenities), made him appear to be an oriental potentate, not the head of a relatively poor socialist country. He spent most of his last ten years on the island where he had, in addition to his luxurious castle, a nuclear bomb-proof shelter. His wife, Jovanka, much younger than the aging dictator, dabbled in Yugoslav politics, and this was greatly resented by his followers. After Tito's death in 1980, his legend was questioned more and more. His legacy certainly includes the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the brutal civil war that is currently taking place. It seems, however, that the civil war is simply a continuation of the brutal struggle that had ended in 1945, and which was only interrupted for a while by Tito's era.
Auty Phyllis, Tito: A Biography ( London, 1974); Dedijer Vladimir, Tito ( New York, 1953); -----, With Tito Through the War: A Partisan Diary ( London, 1951); Maclean Fitzroy, The Heretic: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito ( New York, 1957); Ramet Pedro, Yugoslavia in the 1980s ( Boulder, CO, 1985); Djilas Milovan, Wartime ( London, 1977); Djordjevic Dimitrije , "The Yugoslav Experiment," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992).
Tito after Tito. When Josip Broz Tito died in 1980 (see Tito, Josip Broz), his successors made great efforts to preserve his legacy. The legacy included a federal Yugoslav state with six autonomous republics and two autonomous territories, set up in order to prevent the emergence and strengthening of national passions. But the legacy also included nationalism of the constituent ethnic groups that had been suppressed during Tito's years at the helm of state.
Two laws were to serve Tito's successors to maintain the status quo. One was introduced three years before the death of the leader, in 1977, and the other, four years after he was gone. They were intended to prevent the reevaluation of Tito's role