1984); Hoffman George W., and Neal F. Warner, Yugoslavia and the New Communism ( New York, 1962).
Tudjman, Franjo. Tudjman was a former communist official, who fought in Tito's (see Tito, Josip Broz) Partisan Army during World War II, and reached the rank of major general. He was a member of the communist bureaucracy after 1944 in Croatia. However, Tudjman gradually realized that Croatian nationalism was a powerful vehicle. In the 1960s, and 1970s, he became involved with Croatian nationalist organizations, and, as a consequence, he spent several years in prison. He was a founding member of the Croatian Democratic Alliance, an opposition group that operated clandestinely from 1989. This organization established offices in Croatian township, and by 1990, it had representation in 116 villages and towns. The most controversial point in the platform of Tudjman's organization was that which suggested that Serbs and Muslims, living on Croatian territory, should become members of a confederate Croatian citizenry.
In the elections of late April and early May, Tudjman's Croatian Democratic Alliance won an overwhelming victory, and Tudjman became the new president of Croatia. Croatia then declared its independence from Yugoslavia, and immediately became embroiled in a war with the Serb freebooters in the country. The war was fought with great savagery, and the Serbs had the upper hand, until the United Nations stepped in and mediated a cease-fire. Tudjman continues to direct the politics of Croatia, a country that had been recognized as an independent nation by most European states and the United States of America.
Cohen Lenard J., Broken Bonds: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia ( Boulder, CO, 1993).
Velebit, Vladimir, (1910-?). Velebit was born into a Croatian family of soldiers. His grandfather was a general of the Austro-Hungarian army, and his father was an officer in the Yugoslav army in the interwar years. He studied at the University of Belgrade and received a degree of law. Before World War II, he worked as a lawyer. While Velebit was a student at the university, he became involved with leftist causes. When Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz) reorganized the Yugoslav Communist party in 1937, Velebit's house was used as a secret meeting place. In 1941, Velebit joined Tito's Partisan army. Since he spoke several foreign languages, he was assigned to maintain liaison with the Allied mission. In 1944, he was sent to Egypt where he negotiated on behalf of Tito with the British Mediterranean Command for supplies for the Partisan army. In the fall of 1944, he was invited to London by Winston Churchill as a personal representative of Tito's army and his Liberation Council. This was widely interpreted as British recognition of Tito's government, although King Peter's exile government was still in existence.
After the war, Velebit was appointed deputy minister of foreign affairs. During the rupture between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in 1948, Joseph Stalin denounced