Velebit as an alleged Western spy. At this charge, Velebit withdrew from all his governmental positions and was appointed director of foreign tourism. In Februay 1953, Velebit was appointed Yugoslav ambassador to Great Britain.
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Halperin Ernst, The Triumphant Heretic: Tito's Struggle Against Stalin ( New York, 1958); Hoffman George W., and Neal F. Werner, Yugoslavia and the New Communism ( New York, 1962); Rusinow Dennison, The Yugoslav Experiment, 1948-1974 ( Berkeley, CA, 1977).
Vukmanovic-Tempo, Svetozar (1912-?). Colonel General Vukmanovic-Tempo, a Montenegrine, graduated from the school of law at Belgrade University. In 1933, he joined the illegal youth section of the underground Communist party, and he was accepted to full membership in the party in 1935. He had become an expert in establishing secret printing shops, and was arrested several times for subversive activities. After 1937, he became a close associate of Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz) and joined the partisan movement at its very beginning. He was appointed Tito's personal representative in Macedonia and chief coordinating officer of the Yugoslav-Greek-Albanian- Bulgarian partisan units.
In 1943, he was appointed chief political commissar of the Partisan army. He was a deputy in the federal parliament after the war and was also appointed a member of the central planning commission. He succeeded Boris Kidric (see Kidric, Boris) as chief economic planner in 1952 and chaired the federal government's economic committee and the committee for energy and mines. When the constitution was changed in 1953, Vukmanovic-Tempo became the fourth vice president of the federal government. He remained an important member of Tito's inner circle throughout the 1950s and 1960s. After Joseph Stalin's death, he was entrusted by Tito with making secret contacts with Stalin's successors, and he was credited with bringing about the reconciliation between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union in 1955. During the fall of 1955, he led a delegation of economic experts to Moscow and negotiated the details of an economic agreement between the two countries. He was a member of the Politburo and of the Central Committee of the League of Yugoslav Communists (the Communist party).
Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957); Clissold Stephen, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union ( London, 1975).
Yugoslav Federalism. It was obvious to all concerned that Yugoslav unitarism, the system that was in practice in Yugoslavia between the two World Wars, had failed. At the end of World War II, therefore, federalism seemed a good option for the reconstruction of the state. The only question was, whether federalism should be based on the three major components of Yugoslavia--Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia--or additional units should be added to the federation.