vast amounts of periodical literature by and about contemporary Indians and Alaska Natives. Much of that literature appeared in newspapers and periodicals published or edited by them or in newspapers and periodicals devoted to their affairs. During that period, the Indian and Native press had its foundation; there, one finds the antecedents for the many Indian and Native editors and publishers whose newspapers and periodicals form a vital part of today's Indian or Native scene. That period, too, witnessed the flourish and decline of an essentially pro- Indian, though at times misguided, nonsectarian press, which has all but disappeared in the twentieth century as Indians and Natives have been able to resume more and more control of their affairs. It also witnessed the flourish and decline of the Indian Service school and agency publications, which were means for implementing federal policy.
Paradoxes abound in all of these types of publications. The native press, when it engaged in tribal or intertribal factionalism, contributed to the decline of tribal power. The press of the so-called friends of the Indians often worked against the best interests of the Indians by promoting such policies as allotment of lands in severalty. Finally, many of the Indian Service school publications, although instruments of cultural destruction, are excellent examples of the printing craft learned by the students. Those students made up part of the generation of native editors, publishers, and printers whose work bridged the gap between 1924 and the burst of vitality in American Indian and Alaska Native journalism during the last two decades.