under the heading of "Daybreak," containing poetry, church news, inspirational material, and convocation reports.
In the summer of 1925, Anpao was moved to Springfield, South Dakota, where it was edited by the Reverends John K. Burleson and Paul H. Barbour at Springfield and Levi M. Rouillard (Sioux) at Rapid City. John Flockhart was business manager. Burleson, ordained in 1896, taught theology at St. Mary's at Springfield. Barbour went to Springfield in 1925 to take charge of the Santee Mission, which he administered until 1930 when he moved to Rosebud. 4 In 1927, the editors dropped the English-language page. Content consisted mainly of news of schools, agencies, and missions. Letters appeared less frequently. In 1928, Burleson left the paper, and in 1929, H. H. Whipple of Greenwood, South Dakota, was added to the list of editors. Whipple, a Sioux who was ordained deacon in 1917, became administrator of the Santee Mission in 1930. 5 Rouillard was replaced about the same time by P. C. Brugier of Martin, South Dakota.
At the beginning of 1930, the paper moved once more to Santee, Nebraska, where it was published by Charles R. Lawson and, later, by Millard M. Fowler. Editorial offices were in Mission, South Dakota. Barbour was the editor at Mission, and Cyril C. Rouillard (Sioux) was editor at Pierre. The Dakota material remained much as it had been for years. But in 1934 some English-language items began to appear once more, and from that point increased so that most of the publication was in English by late 1937.
For over a decade, there had been evidence that Anpao was on the decline. In 1919, the editors began to publish once every two months. Beginning in 1926, they published eight or nine times yearly, and in 1935, seven. It ceased publication, apparently in late 1937 or early 1938. Anpao was one of the longest surviving native-language periodicals in America.
Bibliography: Frederick W. Hodge (ed.), Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico ( Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1910), 2: 232; James ConstantinePilling