The California Indian Herald, established at San Francisco in January, 1923, was a quarterly publication of the Indian Board of Co-Operation (IBC), begun in 1910. It was formally organized at Round Valley in 1912 by Frederick G. Collett. Incorporated under the laws of California to work in California and adjoining states, it was established, in the founders' terms, to encourage the Indians to do everything for themselves that they were capable of doing and to assist them in doing what they could not do alone. With headquarters in San Francisco and governed by officers and a board of directors, the IBC consisted of theretofore scattered bands, organized into auxiliaries, of which there were about sixty in 1923 with almost nine thousand members.
The specific objectives of the IBC were to encourage the Indians to organize to work for their rights under state and federal law, to obtain legislation that would admit their claims to the U.S. Court of Claims, to obtain competent legal services, to prevent the waste of congressional appropriations or any claims won, to ensure that appropriations for Indians were used for Indians, and to promote the general welfare of the Indians regarding public school privileges, care of the sick, old, and needy, and creation of friendlier relations among the tribes. By 1923, the board had secured the foundation of new public schools for Indians, gained admission of Indian children to schools already established, gained admission of children from Indian grammar schools into public high schools, gained admission of the sick to hospitals, obtained relief for indigent Indians, and instituted the suit that ended in the California Supreme Court's 1917 decision that nonreservation Indians were citizens ( Anderson v. Mathews).