them that the day would come when tribal government would cease, no matter
how hard they may have worked against it or tried to pretend it would not
happen. He had tried to prepare them for the end. Now he urged them, above
all, to hold on to their land, and he told them, "You must show your manhood,
you can't afford to be a lot of weaklings. You must meet this change squarely
and fearlessly." The Cherokee Advocate ceased publication on March 3, 1906,
ending the longest continued publication by Indians to that time. The last printer
was Caleb W. Starr, and the translator was David E. Smallwood.
In 1904, it was reported that only five printers knew how to set Cherokee
type: T. Watie Foreman, Cale Starr, George Wofford, Joseph Sequichie, and David Smallwood. Foreman, who could set type in both languages, had entered
the Advocate office in the late 1870s as a typesetter and remained there until the
36 Smallwood had set type for both The Cherokee Advocate and Cherokee Gospel Tidings.*
In 1911, the federal government ordered the sale of the printing office, press,
and equipment, except the Cherokee type, which was to be sent to the Smithsonian Institution. Wofford was retained to sort out the type in preparation for
the sale, at which the plant sold for $ 151.00 to J. S. Holden, publisher of the New Era at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma.
Carolyn Thomas Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 1835-1907 ( Norman: University
of Oklahoma Press, 1936), 76.
Cullen Joe Holland, The Cherokee Indian Newspapers, 1828-1906: The Tribal
Voice of a People in Transition ( Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1977), 205-208.
Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 76.
John Bartlett Meserve, "Chief William Potter Ross," Chronicles of Oklahoma, 15 ( March, 1937), 21-29; Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 77. Ross later edited the Indian
Chieftain,* the Indian Arrow,* and The Indian Journal.*
Holland, Cherokee Indian Newspapers, passim.
Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 78-79.
For further details of Ross's editorship, see Holland, Cherokee Indian Newspapers, 220-222.
For this controversy, see ibid., 224-227.
James Vann was also a steamboat operator in the Cherokee Nation. Carolyn Thomas Foreman
, "Early History of Webbers Falls," Chronicles of Oklahoma, 29 (Winter, 1951- 1952), 462. For further details on Vann's editorship, see Holland, Cherokee Indian
Newspapers, 228-231, 234-240, 243-245.
Carolyn Thomas Foreman, "The Foreign Mission School at Cornwall, Connecticut," Chronicles of Oklahoma, 7 ( September, 1929), 248. In 1851, Carter became a
judge of the Cherokee Supreme Court. He died on February 1, 1867. Foreman, Oklahoma
Imprints, 79-80; Holland, Cherokee Indian Newspapers, 232-234.
For Boudinot's editorship, see Holland, Cherokee Indian Newspapers, 240.
The Cherokee Advocate, November 4, 1851; The Sequoyah Memorial, July 31, 1857; Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 77, 80. Rollo G. Silver, "A Preliminary Check-"