American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1

By Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.; James W. Parins | Go to book overview

Apache wars, pending legislation concerning allotment of lands in severalty, and the Mohonk Conferences. Like Meacham, Bland believed that the solution to the Indian "problem" rested in "civilization" and citizenship. Editorially, he supported the off-reservation school system and opposed allotment against the Indians' will. He also sought reform at the agency level. He wanted the Indian Service purged of the bad agents and reported on their involvement in fraud. He charged V. T. McGillycuddy of the Pine Ridge Agency with fraud and closely monitored affairs at that agency. He spoke out against fraud in the leasing of grazing lands and attempts to open the Indian Territory to settlement.

In November, 1885, Bland published the platform of the newly formed National Indian Defense Association (NIDA) and published its constitution in the next issue. The issues signaled a change in direction for the publication. Bland was a founder and member of the executive committee of NIDA, and with the January, 1886, issue, he dropped the periodical's affiliation with the National Arbitration League and affiliated it with NIDA. He changed the name to The Council Fire, and, as originally, it was "devoted to the civilization and rights of the American Indian." He continued to publish much in the same vein as before, monitoring closely events in Indian country, particularly the Indian Territory and the Sioux reservations.

By late 1886, the publication was in financial difficulty. That year the Blands published only ten issues. Publication was apparently suspended from May to November of 1887, and no issues were published in 1888. The Council Fire was revived in January, 1889, but ceased with the December, 1889, issue.

Throughout its life, the publication changed little in format, except for Volume 5. Each issue consisted of sixteen quarto pages with two columns of print each. In Volume 5, size was reduced, but the number of pages was doubled.

While The Council Fire stands out as a strong pro-Indian voice during the decade of the 1880s, it is uncertain, in retrospect, whether the editors' appeal for "civilization" worked for the Indian's good. Nevertheless, it highlights the basic issues of debate in Indian affairs during the years preceding the General Allotment Act, which initiated a policy as devastating in its effects as the termination policy of this century.


Notes
1.
Robert M. Utley makes clear distinctions between Grant's Peace Policy and Quaker Policy, which are sometimes confused. He also deals with the failure of Grant's policy in "The Celebrated Peace Policy of General Grant," North Dakota History, 20 ( July, 1953), 121-142.
2.
Thomas Augustus Bland, Life of Alfred B. Meacham ( Washington, D.C.: T. A. and M. C. Bland, 1883), passim.

Information Sources

Bibliography: Thomas Augustus Bland, Life of Alfred B. Meacham ( Washington, D.C.: T. A. and M. C. Bland, 1883); Edward Sterl Phinney, "Alfred B. Meacham, Promoter of Indian Reform" (Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1963)

-120-

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American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Conclusion xxxi
  • GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES IN THE ENTRIES xxxiii
  • A 3
  • Note 4
  • Note 5
  • Note 6
  • Note 9
  • Notes 18
  • Note 20
  • Note 23
  • Notes 27
  • Notes 30
  • Notes 32
  • Notes 34
  • Note 37
  • B 39
  • Notes 40
  • Notes 42
  • Note 43
  • C 47
  • Notes 49
  • Note 51
  • Note 55
  • Notes 58
  • Notes 73
  • Notes 79
  • Notes 81
  • Note 82
  • Notes 84
  • Notes 91
  • Notes 94
  • Notes 97
  • Note 98
  • Notes 102
  • Notes 103
  • Notes 104
  • Notes 107
  • Note 109
  • Note 111
  • Notes 116
  • Notes 120
  • D 123
  • Notes 124
  • Notes 125
  • Notes 127
  • Notes 131
  • E 133
  • Notes 134
  • F 137
  • Notes 138
  • G 141
  • Notes 141
  • H 143
  • Note 143
  • Notes 147
  • I 151
  • Notes 162
  • Note 167
  • Notes 168
  • Note 170
  • Notes 171
  • Note 172
  • Note 173
  • Notes 176
  • Note 180
  • Note 185
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 195
  • Notes 200
  • Notes 204
  • Note 209
  • Notes 213
  • Notes 216
  • Note 219
  • Notes 220
  • Notes 224
  • Notes 229
  • Notes 231
  • Note 234
  • Notes 241
  • Notes 245
  • L 247
  • M 249
  • Note 250
  • Note 251
  • Note 255
  • Note 256
  • Note 259
  • Note 260
  • Note 263
  • Notes 264
  • Notes 266
  • N 267
  • Notes 269
  • Notes 270
  • Note 273
  • Notes 277
  • O 279
  • Note 289
  • Notes 292
  • Notes 295
  • P 297
  • Notes 300
  • Notes 301
  • Notes 303
  • Q 305
  • Note 306
  • Note 307
  • R 309
  • Note 312
  • Notes 316
  • Notes 320
  • Notes 325
  • S 327
  • Note 328
  • Notes 329
  • Notes 330
  • Notes 332
  • Note 334
  • Note 335
  • Notes 337
  • Notes 338
  • Note 340
  • Note 343
  • Notes 346
  • Notes 347
  • Note 349
  • Notes 352
  • T 355
  • Notes 356
  • Note 361
  • Note 363
  • Notes 369
  • V 371
  • Notes 372
  • Notes 375
  • Note 377
  • W 379
  • Notes 380
  • Notes 382
  • Notes 384
  • Note 386
  • Notes 389
  • Notes 394
  • Notes 398
  • Notes 399
  • Note 402
  • Note 406
  • Notes 407
  • Y 409
  • SUPPLEMENTAL LIST OF TITLES 411
  • APPENDIX A LIST OF TITLES BY CHRONOLOGY 425
  • APPENDIX B LIST OF TITLES BY LOCATION 431
  • APPENDIX C LIST OF TITLES BY TRIBAL AFFILIATION OR EMPHASIS 439
  • Index 447
  • About the Authors 483
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