former slaves near Sacred Heart on the banks of the South Canadian River and funds for a proposed industrial school for Indian students. Reports on contemporary activities often contained accounts of the temporal and spiritual "progress" being made by the Indians.
In 1900, The Indian Advocate was expanded to thirty-six or more pages with single columns. In 1901 it became a monthly publication and ceased in 1910 when the abbey burned.
The Indian Advocate is important to the history of the missionary movement among the American Indians, especially of Catholic efforts. The publication is useful in understanding the nature and background of the often bitter battles over the Indian's education fought by Catholic and Protestant missionaries.
Bibliography: Carolyn Thomas Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 1835-1907 ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936); Grant Foreman, "Notes from the Indian Advocate," Chronicles of Oklahoma, 14 ( March, 1937), 67-83; Lester Hargrett, Oklahoma Imprints, 1835-1890 ( New York: R. R. Bowker, 1951); William L. S. J. Lucey , "Catholic Magazines: 1890-1893," Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, 63 ( September, 1952), 133-156; Eugene P. Willging and Herta Hatzfield, "Catholic Serials of the Nineteenth Century, Oklahoma--New Mexico," ibid., 74 (Summer, 1963), 174-184.
Index Sources: None
Location Sources: NUC; OkShS; OkU-WHC; ULS
Title and Title Changes: The Indian Advocate ( 1889-1910)
Volume and Issue Data: The Indian Advocate (Vol. 1, No. 1, January, 1889-Vol. 22, No. 3/ 4, March/April, 1910)
Publisher and Place of Publication: Benedictine Fathers, Sacred Heart Mission, Sacred Heart, Oklahoma ( 1889-1910)
Editor: Father D. Ignatius ( 1889)
The Indian Advocate was established at Albany, New York, in April, 1891, as the official publication of the Albany Indian Association, which had been established in 1883. The publication's motto was "Devoted to the cause of the civilization and evangelization of the Indian tribes of America." The eight-page, four-column monthly was edited by Elizabeth Keller Shaule Crannell, president of the association and founder of the Advocate. A native of Sharon Springs,